Association of Latin American and Caribbean Studies

Canadian Association of Latin American and Caribbean Studies
Author(s): ADINA CIMET
Source: Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies / Revue canadienne des
études latino-américaines et caraïbes, Vol. 20, No. 39/40, Special Issue: Cárdenas, Vargas,
Perón and the Jews (1995), pp. 215-225
Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on behalf of Canadian Association of Latin American
and Caribbean Studies
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YIVO Summer Program, New York
While almost all societies can spur the interest of social scientist Mexico seems to hold a special fascination for many scholars. Eve since Mexico’s encounter with Spain and its version of Western civili zation over five centuries ago, its situation has become paradigmatic of the relationship between the conquering and the conquered. Mexico’s
independence (1810) highlighted the issues that were emblematic o the multiple political and economic accommodations experienced b the entire continent. Its revolution in 1910 similarly presaged the soci and political themes that were to be points of contention in Latin Amer ica and beyond for the rest of the century.1 Equally challenging devel opments surfaced later in this century, both within the country itself and between the Mexican government and other nations and interna- tional bodies, as the country faced extraordinarily complex and impor tant issues around World War II. The history of Mexico can thus b seen as a microcosm that allows us to study not only the society itse but also the issues and questions that are important in the bettermen and constant quest for a more dignified life in any society.
The same characteristic weave of perspectives arises from th study of the situation and modern history of Jews in Mexico. Althoug some Jews immigrated as marranos in the colonial period following
the devastation of the Inquisition, most Jews arrived in Mexico in ver small numbers and regrouped as a minority during this century. With out a blueprint as to what and how their social life would evolve, these Jews, Sephardim and Ashkenazim, succeeded in re-creating them selves as a minority in an alien society. In their history as well as in
Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies , Vol. 20, No. 39-40 (1995): 215-225 215
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216 CJLACS / RCELAC 20/39-40 1995
their current social structure, Jews in Mexico variety and multiplicity of choices and challe faced in this century everywhere. They had gion, their diverse internal political choices r tional history and condition,2 processes of cultural integration; and the establishment of ture accommodating the diverse ideologies of as the local political choices open to them.
Both the clustering of the community (the Mexico City) and its relatively small numb proximately half Ashkenazim and half Sep opportunities to researchers who can reconstr voices of the pioneering Jews. This is extraor very large societies. In the United States, for bers defy any generalization and where many type of community or city, so that the ideo community is eclipsed,3 this type of study se enact. Thus, the case of Mexico allows us to r philosophical issues which, although not new on the internal life of this minority in its attem on more general queries that apply to all socia In the encounter of Mexico and Jews in th first the need to document the history of the en Many have attempted to answer this question ly. Several university theses have contributed the Jews in Mexico; these have varied in both they have received. In general, the Ashken attention than the Sephardim. Few committed on the case of Mexican Jews.4 Worthy of me María Martínez Montiel, La Gota de Oro5 on im tion; the comparative work done by Haim immigration during Cárdenas’s tenure;6 A papers on Jews in the colonization period and she co-ordinated for the Kehila Ashkenazi Ashkenazi Jews in Mexico) Generaciones ju Ashkenazi (1922-1992).7
Works examining the political context o include Tzvi Medin’s, which specialized in the mato periods;8 Enrique Krauze’s work on C issues spinning from the Revolution of 1910;9This content downloaded from on Sat, 12 Oct 2019 17:29:08 UTC
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Cimet / Jews as a Minority in Mexico 217
Corinne Krauze and Harriet Sara Lesser;10 the comparative wo Jewish education carried out by Efraim Zadoff;11 and the wo David Bankier on the left political linkages between Jews and Jews during World War II.12 The theses of Miguel Abruch, J Bokser Liwerant, Elizabeth Broid, Adina Cimet, Ana Portnoy, Sus Ralsky-Cimet and Monica Uniquel examine a variety of issues in d ferent depth.13 Also significant are the contributions of Gloria Ca ño,14 Guadalupe Zárate,15 Silvia Seligson,16 Liz Hamui,17 Lo Meyer, Ezra Shabot, Moisés González Navarro, Tzvi Schechner1 the visual representation of the Jewish settlement in Mexico, team directed by Judit Bokser Liwerant.19 Finally, a recent census of Jewish community directed by Sergio della Pergolla and Susana L under the sponsorship of the Hebrew University and the Coleg México provides information on the present and extrapolates from present to the past, estimating the Jewish population in Mexico, growth, trends and economic changes.20 This list is illustrative r than exhaustive, and gives only an impressionistic view of what been done. Most of the work has used local sources including gov ment materials; primary sources written in Yiddish or Spanish; b articles and correspondence from immigrants in the country; arch and oral history.21 From them emerge the contours of the life and str ture of the Jews in Mexico, which was self-made to a degree, ye shaped by the Mexican context within which it unfolded.
All studies of Jews in Mexico, especially those that deal with migration, address in a way or another the problem of space, wh at the root of many confrontations between groups in the world definition of the legitimate space of an individual or a social gro obviously not a new topic. Space is so central a subject because it cludes physical and sociological aspects in its definition. Yet, beca there is no consensus over these definitions in different historical
moments each group must rework the limits of the space it has as well
as deal with the boundaries of the space it is given. These limits are
always contingent upon the definition of the space of the other. In our
contemporary world we continue to put to the test specific definitions
of the political and philosophical space that groups put forth. Intellec-
tually, the works of Henri Lefebvre22 and other French thinkers such as
Pierre Bourdieu and Michel Foucault have created an awareness that,
although the planet is finite, and perhaps because of that, issues of
space are crucial. They suggest it is not only political, economic, ideo-
logical and territorial issues that have influenced the opening or closure
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218 CJLACS / RCELAC 20/39-40 1995
of space among groups; rather, it is within ries that space is created or defined. In oth especially those that lie latent within a socie confined and almost silent there, are the fo groups to exist. Studying that space of soci the patterns of control, power and dominat ing the patterns of interrelation within and b limitations and violence that are imposed b what can change. It is within a society that relations between its members is construc selves and others; groups with more power domination as they attempt the consens which may constitute the majority. And some challenge the status quo and resist the them, there is neither a philosophical nor a tects rejected groups from those that want to Following independence Mexico was co social and political reconstruction. The b how should the new independent society g specific issues of governance was the matte included, which should have power, and, b be excluded. The same issues resulted in Revolution of 1910. If this society spent 1 answer to these questions, in this century have been devoted to implementing the visi posed into specific forms and channels in or Once the revolutionary war was over, the p their hegemony, ignoring the arguments p the same questions once more, because inadequate, incomplete or wrong.
As this society defined itself anew, it ha ship with all others: the foreign powers tha ers that wanted to come, the foreigners th were part of a complex puzzle that had no vertently guided the functioning of this so groups that regrouped as a subculture in t ways had a variety of cultural types in its tions of tremendous variety, blacks, Europe allow new minorities into the country posThis content downloaded from on Sat, 12 Oct 2019 17:29:08 UTC
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Cimet / Jews as a Minority in Mexico 219
create a political and social space for them, but also to acce definition of itself, of its emerging body politic.
Studying a minority always reveals much about the majorit period of Lázaro Cárdenas (1934-40) provides an example of litical, economic and philosophical issues connect, thereby brin the surface a host of social and sociological issues which ot would have remained dormant. The Cárdenas years are paradig because issues of space were effectively being brought to the flecting tensions over national space, international space, owner space and its resources, historical ownership of territory, mo between groups, internal political space, responsibility for the selectivity of the other, all effectively part of the political disc the period, but also encoded in many structures that defined society forever after. The Cárdenas period through World Wa the postwar period was thus rich, enriching, challenging and u all at once, then and now.
With regard to the Jewish community in Mexico, there ar main areas of inquiry that have captured the interest of scho first deals with the internal actions of the minority’s membe political views as Zionists, Bundists, Communists; their edu structure, which consisted of ideologically linked day schoo religious organizations which comprised a scattered number of gogues and congregations; and their cultural output which pro much material in Yiddish and Spanish in the form of books, n pers, journals, etc. The second area concerns the relationship b the minority and the general society. Though it is still dev scholars have addressed the problems on the official space Jews in Mexican society, and have dealt to a degree with topics rejection of the minority, the symbols of acceptance that the m received and highlighted, the position of the national progres and the position of the conservative right with respect to the m the integration of Jews into the general society and issues of a tion and adaptation.
While much information on the Jews of Mexico has bee misplaced and not recorded, there is still much that needs to b and reinterpreted. Areas which still need examining include the ing: the peculiarly idiosyncratic mixture of religion and secul Jews in Mexico; their solutions for the private/public definit themselves; and women’s roles and minority power, among ot ics. Yet, we have enough data to portray certain patterns and This content downloaded from on Sat, 12 Oct 2019 17:29:08 UTC
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220 CJLACS / RCELAC 20/39-40 1995
raising the questions as to the identity of Me Jewish community in Mexico. Because what is the definition of the self of these two entities Power differentials provide an important lens it is with power and its symbolic and real opened or closed in a society. But power is within a government and its repressive organizati entials undergird most of the relationships in mate, cultural, racial and sexual touching all mem There are many reasons why the president Lázaro Cárdenas until the 1950s has elicited so m est in academic circles. This largely reflects th which Cárdenas has been held. To leftist intell the first “true” authentic stance in modern M For the nationalists, Cárdenas represented a new expropriated the rail (1937) and petroleum right, Cárdenas embodied all that was fearful Cárdenas consolidated the political power stru that became his strongest asset and the center for the system.23 Much has been studied from labour and union movements, agrarian reform figures of the period such as: Enrique Flores M Emilio Portes Gil, Luis N. Morones and Vicent mention a few. Differences and similarities bet policies have been compared using Cárdenas as ferences between the Calles and Maximato per suggesting that in the former the system was use olutionary forces and the local caudillos, and, in as a channel for political climbing – ascenso – a country. Other scholars see Cárdenas’ regime government as a presidential instrument for t efforts between the well-recognized sectarian d is seen as initiator of a novel phase in Mexican implemented touched on a variety of other is power structure of the country, for example, space of religious and lay structures of society of the political system also affected the economy changes launched by him established the patter cal parties and within the major political party all under the rhetorical slogan of balancing “clThis content downloaded from on Sat, 12 Oct 2019 17:29:08 UTC
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Cimet / Jews as a Minority in Mexico 221
The Jewish community of this period was not impervious changes. For socialist Jews, Cárdenas embodied socialist ide represented true change in a world that had started experimenti the ideology of change as no other century had. Jews searched leftist ideology a space and a new source of legitimization. Wh ish communists wanted a complete utopia, socialists searched fo ance of their cultural differences; acceptance of their right to exist port in the fight against Nazi fascism and eventually after the w ing Zionists, all wanted legitimization of their national nee dreams – support for the state of Israel. Their insertion into the however, was not without difficulty. During this period Jews enced insecurity and rejection. The changes in the economy prejudice to surface.
Responses to the ongoing changes in the economy as wel the new boundaries and power statuses of the groups involv being forged. If the left seemed active, so was the right. The ment of anarchist ideas, labour mobilization, free-masonry, et interpreted by some as hostile to Catholicism. The Camisas and the Sinarquista movement became the physical outcry threatened right. Their anti-Semitic discourse was openly f The left in Mexico seemed less accepting of this anti-Semitism, this banner was meaningfully picked up mostly by the intern left – the European refugees that came later to Mexico during t They argued strongly the case for Jews. As an institution, the ment of Mexico showed weak open support towards the Jews. W exception of the workers’ movement and the documented solida Lombardo Toledano, Jews had few allies. Later, in the period o War II the lack of support was particularly wounding. While M had responded to the civil war in Spain by opening its door Spanish refugees, no such welcome met the Jewish refugee insecurity of Jews in Mexico increased with these development of the labels attached to Jews systematically showed the limit conditional space they had been granted in Mexican societ moment they were citizens; another, they were foreigners and r They were also described as subversive, undesirable, minority, e ate, heretical, all labels from the repertoire that is used for any that is ostracized and marginalized in language and society b who define their own space and that of others. Few protested t few protest now if they notice such labeling at all.
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222 CJLACS / RCELAC 20/39-40 1995
The same pattern of unexpressed prejudic and linger in the study of the past and its re can take the opposite format: from political a cal symmetry). A recent (1996) major exhibit seum in New York called “Converging Cultur history as a crucible of cultural harmony. C complete overviews of colonial art ever pr exhibit interprets Mexican history with the Octavio Paz:
Although following independence, and indeed until quite recently, Mex-
ico attempted to deny its colonial past as an integral part of its history,
this is no longer the case. We now understand that Mexico is best de-
fined by the title of this great exhibition: “Converging Cultures,” and
today we Mexicans are as proud of our Aztec, Mayan, or Olmec past as
we are of our Spanish heritage. . . . The great colonial poetry, the ba-
roque art, the Leyes de Indias, the work of the first cronistas and histori-
ans, the architecture in which the most diverse sources have been har-
monized in an order as rigorous as it is wide, are nothing but a reflection
of the equilibrium of colonial society, a society in which all men and all
races found their own place, their sense and justification.
This quotation is a perfect example of the underlying thinking that
redefines history in a way that excludes large parts of history itself. Not
only is this mythical “harmonizing” of cultures and past dangerous, it
is also inaccurate. By emphasizing as accomplishments issues that
modern Mexico still has to address in dealing with its inherited past, it
distorts reality, past and present. Paralleling, as we study Jews as a
minority in Mexico, we have to question the basis for Mexico’s accept-
ance of minorities. Has this acceptance been conditional; has citizen-
ship really been the key to full membership? What does it mean to have
or lack “full membership” in Mexico? Mexico’s democracy must still
contend with the country’s policy towards minorities, the inconsisten-
cies with its internal policies towards its own indigenous minorities,
and the discrepancies between its international self-definition and im-
age and its policies and prejudices towards minorities and foreigners.25
Questions about the minority condition during the Cárdenas years
reveal not only the internal challenges and conflicts of the minority, but
the limits and challenges that Mexico faced and still faces towards all
minorities and itself.
One of the values of historical analysis is its promise to articulate
something relevant to us today. The kind of studies we have mentioned
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Cimet / Jews as a Minority in Mexico 223
here and the issues they raise reveal an interest on the lack of p solutions available to society. While looking back in time can nev the specific solutions needed for the present, it can at least help rai questions that need to be asked. Otherwise we have no perspecti which to examine the contemporary scene. The past is useful fo reasons, particularly because so much of the past lives on present. The study of the past is important not only in its own rig also as a re-study of what has happened, as a demythologizing achievements or shortcomings of the institutions of a society.
There is a tendency for immigrants and minority members their own history in terms of a perennial gratitude towards the ciety and government. Although the feelings of immigrants ar standable and justified, our democratic principles and ideals ca moderate these subservient sentiments. Against that kind of a work such as that by Haim Avni,26 for example, who is an ou the community, is therefore seminal because he has helped ra comparing the actual behaviour of the government with the se that Mexico promoted as refugee haven and moral society.
Similar re-examinations are needed for the Jewish comm too. Most analyses of the community highlight the achievemen community. Although there are many achievements indee should not eclipse the spaces that have been closed to the voic did not align themselves with the winning groups. As Com Bundists and Zionists all shared their views about the wor shaped the official response of the community and defined the ters of their politically acceptable boundaries. In this process, and nuances were excluded, silenced and lost. Communists aban the communal structure, Bundists lost power and Zionists wit answers to the local communal needs and problems became the nant group.27
The recent census of the Jewish community in Mexico by della Pergolla and Susana Lerner, found this to be an exemplar unique community. As the population growth is maintained, a which reverses the international pattern of Diaspora secular J they see today a structure that reflects the benefits of a past cultu political effervescence. Yet, voices once spoke in a political and sophical dialogue that do not exist anymore.28 Each of these p postures included a part of the cultural legacy of the communa voices were silenced the cultural attachments that depended on withered. It is to what the Jews maintain today and what hasThis content downloaded from on Sat, 12 Oct 2019 17:29:08 UTC
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224 CJLACS / RCELAC 20/39-40 1995
lowed to die that we must turn; that analysis c of the skills and ideas that have been gained or path on which this community is embarked.
1. Daniel Cosío Villegas et al., ed., Historia general de México , vols. 1-2 (Mexico:
El Colegio de México, 1988).
2. See Pierre Birnbaum and Iva Katzenelson, Path of Emancipation: Jews, States
and Citizenship (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995).
3. See the argument of Debora Dash-Moore in M. Rischin et al., The Jews of North
America (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1987), p. 279, and A. Goren,
New York Jews and the Quest for Community, The Kehillah Experiment,
1908-1922 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1970).
4. See Eugenia Meyer, “Para estudiar a los extranjeros, o los riesgos del historia-
dor, ” Eslabones 5 (1995): 4-13.
5. Luz María Martínez Montiel, La Gota de Oro (Veracruz: Instituto Veracruzano de
Cultura, 1988).
6. Avni’s work is too extensive to mention here. Suffice it to say that he has written
extensively about Argentinean Jewry, but also about Mexico and has done com-
parative analysis on issues of diverse Latin American Jewrys.
7. A. Gojman de Backal et al., co-ord., Generaciones Judías en México, La Kehilá
Ashkenazi (1922-1992) (Mexico: n.p., 1993).
8. T. Medin, El minimato Presidencial : Historia política del maximato, 1928-1935
(Mexico: Editorial Era, 1983), and T. Medin, Lázaro Cárdenas, Ideología política
v vraxis política (Mexico: Siglo XXI, 1984).
9. Enrique Krauze, General misionero, Lázaro Cárdenas (Mexico: Fondo de Cul-
tura Economico, 1987).
10. Corinne Krauze, Los judíos en México, Una historia con énfasis especial en el
período de 1857 a 1930 (Mexico: Universidad Iberoamericana, 1987), and Har-
riet Lesser, “A History of the Jewish Community in Mexico City, 1912-1970,”
Ph.D. diss., JTS and Columbia University, 1972.
11. E. Zadoff, “Un análisis comparativo de las redes educativas de México y Argen-
tina, 1935-1955,” in Agudat Mechkar Yahadut Amerika Latinit (AMILAT), eds.,
Judaica Latinóme ricana, vol. 1 (Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1988), pp. 129-
12. D. Bankier, Los exiliados alemanes en Mexico y sus vínculos con la Comunidad
judía (1942-1945)/’ in ibid., pp. 79-89.
13. Miguel Abruch, Algunos aspectos del antisemitismo en México, tí. A. thesis,
UNAM, Mexico, 1971; Judit Bokser Liwerant, “El movimiento nacional judío. El
sionismo en México, 1922-1947,” Ph.D. diss., UNAM, Mexico, 1991; Elizabeth
Broid, “La diáspora mexicana; seis imigrantes judíos del siglo XX, ” B.A. thesis,
Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico, 1980; Adina Cimet de Singer, “The Ash-
kenazi Community in Mexico, A Dialogue among Ideologies,” Ph.D. diss.,
Columbia University, 1992; Ana Portnoy, “Cultura e intelectuales judíos en
México,” B.A. thesis, Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico, 1977; Susana Ralsky
de Cimet, “La identidad étnica minoritaria, un estudio de caso,” B.A. thesis,
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Cimet / Jews as a Minority in Mexico 225
UNAM, Mexico, 1972; and Monica Uniquel, “La sinagoga y su importan como centro de la vida comunitaria de la comunidad Maguen David/’ B.A. th Universidad Iberoamericana, 1992.
14. Gloria Carreño, “La formación de la comunidad judía en México,’ Jornadas turales (La presencia Judia en México) (Mexico, UNAM, 1987), pp. 29-34.
15. Guadalupe Zárate, México en la diáspora judia (Mexico, 1986).
16. Silvia Seligson, Los judíos de México, un estudio preliminar (Mexico: Centr Estudios Superiores de Antropología Social, 1983).
17. Liz Hamui de Halabe, et al., Los judíos de Alepo en México (Mexico: Mag David A. C., 1989).
1 8. Lorenzo Meyer and Moisés González Navarro are renowned historians of M and have published extensively on a variety of angles all useful as one studies Jews in Mexico. See Meyer, “El estado populista,” in Lorenzo Meyer, ed., C años de lucha de clases en México (Mexico: Quinto Sol, 1978); González N rro, Los extranjeros en México y los mexicanos en el extranjero , vols. 1-2 ( ico: El Colegio de Mexico, 1994); E. Shabot, La extrema derecha en Méx (1960-1965) (Mexico: Cuadernos de Investigación, Acatlán-UNAM, 1987); T. Schechner, “Kehile: un concepto común heredado en México y Argentina AMILAT, eds., Judaica Latinoamericana , vol. 2, pp. 1 15-128.
19. Judit Bokser Liwerant, Imágenes de un encuentro. La presencia judia en M durante la primera mitad del siglo XX (Mexico: UNAM, Tribuna Israe Comité Central de México and Multibanco Mercantil, 1992).
20. A preliminary analisis was published in 1992, and a final version m 1993.
21. See Testimonios de Historia Oral, Judíos en Mexico , by a team of local res ers, guided by the Institute of Contemporary Judaism of the Hebrew Univers Jerusalem.
22. Henri Lefebvre, The Production of Space (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1994).
23. See Medin, Lazaro Cardenas , and B. Lerner de Sheinbaum and à. KaisKy ae
Cimet, El Poder de los Presidentes , Alcances y Perspectivas (1910-1973) (Mex-
ico: Instituto Mexicano de Estudios Políticos, 1976), pp. 101-102.
24. C. Martínez Assad, “Inmigraciones consentidas, Inmigraciones rechazadas, un-
25. S. Sefchovich, “Historia de una desconfianza, Eslabones 5 (1995): 14-23.
26. Avni has been prolific on many subjects of Latin American Jewry, see for this spe-
cific issue his articles “Lázaro Cárdenas y los refugiados judíos,” La Jornada
Semanal (1993), pp. 16-26, and “Entre Bermuda y Santa Rosa; El rescate de
judíos durante el Holocausto en la perspectiva mexicana,” in Geoffrey Wigoder,
ed., Contemporary Jewish Studies (Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1984). It may
be more accurate for the reader to qualify my point here: Avni’ s work gives me the
opportunity to elaborate a critique of society; he himself directs his comments to
the Bermuda Conference and its failing to Jews. The generalizing of the term
“refugee” helped them to dissolve their responsability towards Jews.
27. For further discussion on this, see Adina Cimet, Ashkenazi Jews in Mexico, Ideol-
ogies in the Structuring of a Community (Albany: SUNY Press, forthcoming).
28. A. Cimet, “War of Ideas: The Struggle for Ideological Control of Jewish Schools
in Mexico City, 1940-1951,” YIVO Annual 22 (1995): 203-228, and A. Cimet,
“The Case of Ashkenazi Jews in Mexico, 1940-1950: Nationalism and the Ques-
tion of Language,” The Journal of Culture and Society 95, 3 (1995): 79-109.
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  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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550 words
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The price is based on these factors:
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Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
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Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

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Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

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Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

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Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

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By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

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