Bartleby the Scrivener


Gala Demarin

Dr. Grote

ENGL 1302, 07208

04 December 2020

Language and Tone Essay: “Bartleby the Scrivener”

In Herman Melville’s “Bartleby the Scrivener,” a veteran lawyer with an office on Wall Street in New York City during the 1800s hires a new copywriter, by the name of Bartleby, to assist with the increasing workload in his office. Bartleby works rapidly for the first few days, but then on the third day, when the lawyer asks Bartleby to review a document, Bartleby politely declines. Bartleby starts to turn down any task the lawyer asks of him; within a month from his initial start date, Bartleby stops working altogether and now lives full time in the office. The lawyer attempts to motivate Bartleby into working or moving out but to no avail. Eventually, the lawyer moves his office to a different building to get away from the strange scrivener. Soon after, Bartleby lands himself in jail and then slowly dies of starvation.

The central external conflict is the one between the lawyer and Bartleby. The lawyer struggles to find a way to motivate Bartleby into doing the work he is supposed to do. The lawyer initially hires Bartleby because of his demure, reserved nature, assuming his mild mannerliness to permeate onto the rest of his scriveners. When Bartleby announces he prefers not to proofread the material, the lawyer retorts with, “What do you mean? Are you moonstruck? I want you to help me compare this sheet here-take it” (Melville 29). At first, the lawyer finds himself dumbstruck when Bartleby announces that he would prefer not to proofread the paperwork. The lawyer is not used to having an employee decline a task; he expects absolute compliance from all of his employees. Bartleby shows not even the slightest bit of aggression when he refuses a task, which prompts the lawyer to believe that Bartleby is an honest yet eccentric man. This assumption causes the lawyer to overlook the transgression and continues to proofread the documents with the rest of the copywriters. Bartleby continues to decline whatever task the lawyer asks of him; the lawyer does not know how to handle the insubordination and ends up giving in to Bartleby’s resistance. Eventually, the lawyer finds out that Bartleby now lives in the office and refuses to do even the most remedial tasks, like going to the post office.

The lawyer struggles internally with his feelings towards Bartleby. The lawyer is a selfprofessed businessman who values ease and convenience over anything; his modus operandi is self-serving. Sometimes his egotistical ways impel the lawyer to assist the less fortunate, but there is always a hidden agenda that ultimately benefits the lawyer. Along comes Bartleby, whom the lawyer perceives as calm and collected, just like him. The lawyer thinks to himself, “there was something strange about Bartleby that not only strangely disarmed me, but, in a wonderful manner, touched and disconcerted me” (Melville 30). When Bartleby starts refusing to do the work he is getting paid to do, the lawyer attempts to understand why. At first, the lawyer is confused by Bartleby’s conduct but then goes through several cycles of anger and then sympathy. To the lawyer, Bartleby represents the boldness that the lawyer shies away from throughout his career. Thus, the lawyer chooses not to fire Bartleby and rationalizes why he refuses his workload. When the lawyer finds out that Bartleby is now living in the office, he attempts to bribe him with a generous severance package and asks him to leave. The lawyer is conflicted, and instead of calling the police, he chooses to move his office into another building, leaving Bartleby there to become someone else’s problem. The new tenant asks the lawyer to remove Bartleby from his office, but the lawyer pretends to know nothing about him. Only when the lawyer fears the risk of condemnation does he try to compel Bartleby into vacating the premises.

In “Bartleby the Scrivener, ” the main theme is dehumanization in the workplace. On Wall Street and businesses everywhere, dehumanizing behaviors are a frequent occurrence; these attitudes are generally accepted as a necessary part of achieving efficiency and increasing profit margins. The lawyer subtly dehumanizes his staff by giving them nicknames out of inanimate objects and refuses to contemplate as to why his employees engage in mind-numbing activities in an attempt to self soothe. The lawyer is well aware that a scrivener’s duties are not the most glamourous yet still profits from his copywriters’ tiring and menial work. In a capitalistic society, the ideal employee mimics a machine: one that does not get tired, is entirely obedient, and is always efficient. The lawyer looks down at his staff for they are only efficient for half of the day and ultimately hires Bartleby to assist in the surmounting workload. The only reason the lawyer even attempts to help Bartleby is to regain normalcy in the office.

Another important theme is that a person’s passive resistance can negatively affect them. Passive resistance often refers to any non-violent act of disobedience towards an authoritative power. The audience sees this conscientious objection in Bartleby through his repeated use of “I would prefer not to” (Melville 29). At first, Bartleby limits his usage of his favorite saying only towards the job duties he is not fond of, which proves useful as the lawyer keeps Bartleby under his employment and allows him to live in the office for the time being without any type of admonishment. Nevertheless, in due course, his luck runs out as he adopts the phrase for every aspect of his life and succumbs to his demise, withering away in a jail yard abstaining from any sort of nourishment. While the audience is never privy to the reasoning ascertaining why Bartleby continues to passively resist, one can infer that Bartleby is tired of playing within the unspoken rules that society has built around capitalism and the workplace.

The story takes place on Wall Street, a literal reference to the wall Dutch settlers built in the 17th century to separate themselves from the British. The protagonist, the lawyer, is a mature man with several years of experience under his belt. He introduces the audience to his office, where “at one end, they looked upon the white wall” that penetrates “the building from top to bottom” (Mellville 22). The walls are a symbol of the barriers that corporate America creates to keep efficiency at a high rate (S1). It is a bleak environment where human interaction is limited to the confines of work. Mellville uses the color white to convey the sterility of the work environment the lawyer harbors. There is no room left for empathy, as shown through the imagery of the wall. The walls create a disconnect between the employer and his employees as the lawyer separates himself from his staff using a glass wall. The lawyer then introduces the audience to this staff. When describing Turkey, his elderly copywriter, he makes a note to mention how Turkey seems to change in the afternoon. The lawyer describes Turkey’s face as “it blazed like a grate full of Christmas coals,” (SIM 1) (Mellville 23). Mellville uses a simile to describe the transition of color on Turkey’s face. This figure of speech is used to vividly depict the drastic change in complexion as Turkey takes his break. Turkey is an alcoholic and drinks heavily during his lunch break. When he returns, his face is red in hue, and his personality completely changes. In the afternoon, Turkey is virtually useless to the lawyer as he is drunk and prone to making careless mistakes.

Melville uses the literary device of alliteration when he speaks about Turkey; “there was a strange, inflamed, flurried, flightly recklessness of activity about him” (AL1) (Mellville 23).

This use of alliteration causes the audience to make a mental note of Turkey’s personality traits as it draws attention.  He is a boisterous fellow whose personality seems to change entirely once he has a drink in him. In the mornings, Turkey is a steadfast and civil worker, completing tasks in the most timely manner. However, after lunch, he is rendered useless and becomes quite aggressive in his mannerisms. He is quick to anger and ends up destroying things in a fit of rage, but alas, the lawyer keeps him around, for he is quite useful for half of the workday. The narrator then moves on to his other workers, a young man with the nickname Nippers as he suffers from indigestion and only nibbles a bit at a time for sustenance. Nippers starts his mornings quite useless to the practice as his indigestion gets the better of him, but his productivity soars in the afternoons once his stomach calms down. The other worker is an errand boy by the name of

Ginger Nut, for he brings cookies of the same name to the other workers in the office. To Ginger

Nut, “this quick witted youth, the whole noble science of the law was contained in a nutshell” (Melville 25). Ginger Nut represents society’s youth (S2), He is only twelve years of age but is thrusted onto the corporate ladder by his car salesman father, who wishes for a better life for his son. Ginger Nut expects that if he works hard and does what is asked of him, there is a chance for growth and opportunity. This is the American dream that capitalism continuously sells to the youth. Ginger Nut has no real interest in the law or in copywriting, only in climbing the ladder.

His youth betrays him as he thinks he already knows everything there is to know.

The lawyer finds the need for additional help in his office since being promoted to Master of Chancery. He places an advertisement in the newspaper for a scrivener, and Bartleby responds with interest. During the interview, the lawyer takes note of Bartleby’s calm, almost ghost-like personality and hires him, hoping that he influences the rest of the staff. Instead of providing Bartleby with a desk in the same room as the other workers, the lawyer invites Bartleby to work inside his office. The lawyer assigns “Bartleby a corner by the folding-doors,” ensuring “to have this quiet man within easy call” (Melville 27). Melville illustrates the connection shared between Bartleby and the lawyer (S3). The lawyer is a man who plays by the rules, making sure always to choose the safest option. Instead of fighting for a client at court, the lawyer makes his money through title liens and bonds, relatively tedious bureaucratic work. The lawyer sees himself in

Bartleby, as he appears to be a mild-mannered reasonable man. Bartleby’s character receives the “privilege” to be in the same office as the lawyer. Bartleby’s desk is next to a “window which originally had afforded a lateral view of certain grimy brickyards” but due to the expansion of

New York City “commanded at present no view at all, though it gave some light” (Melville 27).

The window represents the bridge between the world inside the office and the outside world (S4). Windows shield physically but not visually. Almost instantly, Bartleby is similarly cut off from society by the wall in front of the window. He does see people or other buildings. Instead, the only glimmer of the outside world is the sun that peaks from overhead. Melville implies that Bartleby is in a disconnect with the rest of the world.

Notwithstanding the surface level connection, the lawyer places “a high green folding screen, which might entirely isolate Bartleby” (Melville 28). The screen represents the lawyer’s internal conflict regarding being a successful business owner versus being a wholesome religious man (S5). A partition, especially a screen, simply provides a temporary, physical barrier between others. This screen instills a false sense of privacy as the scrivener is still at an ear’s reach to the lawyer. He lacks the empathy to connect with his staff more than just skin deep. The screen is not meant to give comfort to Bartleby but to the lawyer who has difficulty connecting with people. Once Bartleby starts to work, the lawyer thinks to himself that Bartleby “seemed to gorge himself on on my documents” (M1) (Melville 28). The word gorge conjures images of someone over indulging in food. Melville uses this direct comparison to showcase the speed at which Bartleby processes each document. It instantly provides the audience with a mental image of a man copying papers at an alarming rate. The usage of the metaphor enhances the imagery of the office. Bartleby’s speed causes the lawyer to immediately become cynical after watching him work.

It is not the speed that concerns the lawyer, but Bartleby’s apparent lack of enthusiasm while copy-writing. The lawyer is well aware that the primary duty of a scrivener is to copy documents word for word for hours at a time. He even goes out to say that he cannot imagine “the mettlesome poet, Byron, would have contentedly sat down with Bartleby to examine a law document of, say five hundred pages” (A1) (Melville 28). Lord Byron was a famous poet known for his influence on English romanticism. His flamboyant, hedonistic life views were seen as quite controversial for its time (“Lord”). Mellville sought to mention the poet to illustrate that anyone with an affinity for romanticism or creative endeavors would find copy-writing to be mind-numbing. Throughout his career and beyond, Lord Byron is known for his beliefs that “revolution alone can save the Earth from hell’s pollution” (“Lord”). This foreshadows the passive resistance shown in Bartleby.

The lawyer places Bartleby’s desk near him for convenience and efficiency while never asking Bartleby if he is comfortable with the setup. On what the narrator believes to be the third day of Bartleby’s employment, the lawyer calls out to Bartleby to proofread a document. The lawyer is expectant that Bartleby complies, but to his astonishment, Bartleby never comes out from behind the green screen and instead replies with “I would prefer not to” (Melville 29). The lawyer takes a minute to process and assumes that Bartleby must have misheard him and repeats himself. Bartleby again tells the lawyer that “I would prefer not to,” (R1) (Melville 29), which causes the lawyer to get up from his seat and walk over to Bartleby to confront him directly as to why he refuses to do his work. Melville deliberately repeats the phrase “I would prefer not to” several times throughout. This passive resistance is meant to drive the reader toward aggravation, much like it aggravates the lawyer. Bartleby continuously challenges the lawyer’s ideals on how an employee shall behave. Melville intentionally places significance on the phrase, as the usage of prefer dictates that Bartleby is not flat out refusing. The usage of repetition also highlights Bartleby’s personality as someone smarter than they let on.

As the lawyer thrusts the papers in front of Bartleby, he examines his composure and finds no sign of contempt or aggression. The lawyer thinks to himself,  “as it was, I should have as soon thought of turning my pale plaster-of-paris bust of Cicero out of doors” (Melville 29). A bust is a representation or copy of a human being (S6). The bust of Cicero is a reference to the hollowness of the position that Bartleby holds. Bartleby is a scrivener, one who spends his days copying the work of others. The bust that looms over the lawyer’s head is not made out of marble but a cheaper material, plaster. Melville illustrates that Bartleby is just a lifeless copy of the rest of the staff. The lawyer continues to stare at Bartleby in sheer confusion but decides not to press the matter further and instead calls Nippers to analyze the document. A few days later, the lawyer once again calls upon Bartleby to examine some papers, to which he again retorts that he prefers not to. The lawyer is flabbergasted by Bartleby’s refusal and attempts to reason with him using logic and common sense, even calling for the rest of the staff and asking them what they think of Bartleby’s preference. This does not work in the lawyer’s favor as Bartleby remains silent. Once again, the lawyer decides he has more pressing matters to attend to and drops the interrogation. After some time, the lawyer attempts to understand the enigma that is Bartleby, taking note of his work and eating habits.

The lawyer takes pity on Bartleby, thinking to himself that Bartleby is just an eccentric man but means well. He decides to keep him under his employment, for it is an act of goodwill to keep him around and does not call for any effort on the lawyer’s part. Still, the lawyer gets irritated at Bartleby’s passiveness and attempts to lure some animosity out of Bartleby to no avail. This perplexes the lawyer even further, causing him to ponder the mystery of Bartleby’s mannerisms. One Sunday, en route to church, the lawyer decides to stop at the office and, to his dismay, realizes that Bartleby now lives there. The lawyer feels pity for Bartleby, for he has no one and lives in poverty, noting that on Sundays, “Wall street is deserted as Petra” (A2) (Melville 36). Petra is an ancient city carved into the mountains known as the “world’s richest and largest archaeological sites set in a dominating red sandstone landscape” (UNESCO). Melville includes Petra’s mention to illustrate the emptiness found on the streets of Wall Street on Sundays. Petra once was a booming epicenter for trade, but slowly, its inhabitants abandoned the city once better trade routes were established. The imagery of the desertion Petra faces is parallel to what the financial district sees every weekend. The stock market closes for the weekend, ceasing all foot traffic for 48 hours.

The lawyer is overcome with sadness at the thought that Bartleby is left entirely alone and penniless. The idea that both the lawyer “and Bartleby were sons of Adam” (A3) (Melville

36) ruminates with the narrator. In many Western religions, doctrine speaks of the first humans, Adam and Eve. They are known as “parents of the human race” (“Adam”). The lawyer feels a kinship to Bartleby as well as the rest of humanity. As the lawyer is a Christian man, all of humanity comes from the same lineage in his eyes. Thus, he feels compelled to assist his extended family from such a sad existence. The lawyer starts to dig through Bartleby’s belongings and finds a meager savings bank tucked away in his desk. He starts to analyze


Bartleby’s mannerisms; his pity combines with fearfulness since he genuinely does not understand Bartleby and morphs into disgust. The lawyer decides that on Monday morning,

Bartleby must answer the questions he has; if not, he can leave his job. He is willing to help Bartleby get his life together, but it requires honesty on Bartleby’s part. The following morning the lawyer beckons Bartleby, but alas, Bartleby does not respond.

Eventually, Bartleby comes out from behind the screen after some gentle coaxing, and the lawyer asks him about his life. To the lawyer’s dismay, Bartleby prefers not to answer, keeping his mouth shut and his “glance fixed upon my bust of Cicero” (A4) (Melville 38). Cicero was an ancient Greek orator known for his Latin translations of classical Greek thought and philosophy, but “his opinions on politics were not always popular, and he was ultimately declared a public enemy” ( The work of Cicero has heavily influenced the age of enlightenment in the 18th century. Melville deliberately brings up Cicero again for the second time to elucidate the parallels between himself and Bartleby. Cicero was seen as a controversial figure in ancient Greece, and the same can be said of Bartleby. Bartleby’s ways confuse others, and they vilify him for it, just like Cicero. Unfortunately, the lawyer does not get any answers from Bartleby and allows him to return to his desk. The other staff workers start to use the word “prefer” in their everyday language, prompting the lawyer to think to himself that he must get rid of Bartleby at once before his insolence permanently changes his other workers’ behavior.

Bartleby ceases to do any more work and spends his days looking out of the window. One Friday afternoon, the lawyer attempts to bribe Bartleby into leaving by giving him his back pay plus a twenty dollar severance package. To the lawyer’s surprise, he finds Bartleby still at the office on Monday morning. The lawyer takes a walk around the block and, once he returns, lets Bartleby know his displeasure to find him still there. Bartleby ignores the lawyer and retreats back to his desk; in turn, the lawyer becomes resentful of his continued unwanted presence. The lawyer tries to soothe his worries by thinking that Bartleby is going to come to his senses and leave. To alleviate his incertitude, the lawyer “looked a little into ‘Edwards on the Will'” (A5) (Melville 45). Edwards on the Will refers to American philosopher Johnathan Edwards and his work on Freedom of the Will. Edwards notes “that God has a certain and infallible Prescience of the voluntary acts of moral agents” (“Jonathan”). Edwards is trying to say that people’s behaviors, both good and bad, are a design of God, who is omnipotent. Bartleby is the way he is because God has made him as such. God must have brought Bartleby into the lawyer’s life to teach him a moral lesson. This thought soothes the lawyer, and he decides to no longer fight the idea of Bartleby. Friends and colleagues of the lawyer start to make comments about Bartleby to the point that the lawyer worries that others talk about his lack of control behind his back. This is the final straw for the lawyer as he decides to rid himself of Bartleby for once and for all.

The lawyer thinks to himself, ” Since he will not quit me, I must quit him. I will change my offices; I will move elsewhere, and give him fair notice” (I1) (Melville 48). Instead of directly confronting the issue and effectively communicating with either Bartleby or the police, the lawyer chooses to take the more complicated route. He moves his office to an entirely new building. Melville uses situational irony to emphasize the difficulties in communication that the lawyer has. There is such a disconnect between himself and his staff; it seems more comfortable for him to upend his business. The lawyer even makes a note to give Bartleby some time and money to move out. The lawyer settles into his new office, and everything seems to be going well until one day, the landlord of his old office comes in asking for help in the removal of Bartleby. The lawyer goes to the old office and tries to help Bartleby find another job that might suit him better, like an associate in a market. Bartleby says, “There is too much confinement about that. No, I would not like a clerkship; but I am not particular” (I2) (Melville 50). Melville illustrates the verbal irony in Bartleby’s words. Bartleby never leaves the office; he is confined to this space. Any time the lawyer tries to suggest a new job or career, Bartleby turns it down. However, Bartleby makes an effort to mention that he is not particular to any type of work. This suggests that Bartleby is happy to do any job asked of him, yet he continuously refuses everything.

The lawyer realizes there is nothing that can rouse Bartleby and abandons him in the hope of regaining peace of mind. After a bit of time, the lawyer fears that the landlord is going to take legal action against him for Bartleby’s inactions and escapes town for a few days. When he returns, he finds a note left to him at the office saying that the landlord “had Bartleby removed to the Tombs as a vagrant” (Melville 51). The ‘tombs’ is a slang term for prison. Nevertheless, this deliberate choice of words is a symbolism of death (S7). Jail can be a death sentence to some, depending on the severity of the crime. Bartleby is a man of inaction, and his inaction inevitably lands him in jail. The audience sees a foreshadowing of Bartleby’s final resting place. When the lawyer first hears the news, he is overcome with approval, believing that is the only course of action left for poor Bartleby. The lawyer visits the prison to speak to the judge, for he is the only person to know Bartleby in any way ad informs the judge that Bartleby is indeed an honest good man, but is a bit strange. Once he finishes, the lawyer then decides to visit Bartleby, who roams the prison yard freely because of good behavior. Bartleby recognizes the lawyer but has no interest in speaking to him. The lawyer then tries to lessen the fact that Bartleby is in jail by mentioning, “Look, there is the sky, and here is the grass” (Melville 52). The grass is a symbol to show that everything is not as bad as it seems (S8). Grass is abundant and grows relatively quickly. There is still a chance that Bartleby can grow from this experience. Despite his current confinement, Bartleby has a little piece of nature to tread on. At the same time, grass is uninteresting vegetation, especially in comparison to flowers and trees. This alludes to the unremarkable life that is Bartleby’s.

The lawyer decides to take his leave but still thinks about Bartleby and decides to return to check up on him after a few days. He finds Bartleby in the middle of the prison yard lying down and attempts to rouse him. After a few moments, the lawyer decides to get closer and sees

“that his dim eyes were open” (Melville 54). Bartleby’s dim eyes are a reference to the hollowness that the lawyer perceives in Bartleby (S9). Melville repeatedly uses cadaver like qualities to describe Bartleby when he is alive. The man spends his days copying the words of others is but a shell. This symbol is reminiscent of the other permanent fixture in the lawyer’s office, Cicero’s bust. Bartleby dies with his eyes open, which references the truths that Bartleby sees that others do not. The lawyer remains curious about the strange man and, several months later, hears a rumor that “Bartleby had been a subordinate in the Dead Letter Office” (Melville 55). Dead letters are a symbol of the failures of communication (S10). Dead letters are correspondence that cannot be delivered to its recipient, for they are deceased. Melville includes the dead letters to showcase the lack of connection Bartleby has with his employer and the rest of society. No one has made an effort to connect with Bartleby, and now he is dead. This position might be why Bartleby initially shows interest in the copy-writing job at the lawyer’s office since it entails copying others’ words. At last, the lawyer understands Bartleby’s sad and confusing existence and finds himself overcome with grief.


Works Cited

“Adam and Eve.” Britannica Online, 29 Oct. 2020,

Eve-biblical-literary figures. Editors. “Marcus Tullius Cicero.”, A&E Television Networks, 16 Dec.


“Jonathan Edwards on Free Will.” Edited by Dan Graves, Christian History Institute,

“Lord Byron (George Gordon).” Poetry Foundation,

Melville, Herman. “Bartleby the Scrivener” 40 SHORT STORIES: A Portable Anthology, by

Beverly Lawn, Bedford Bks St Martin’s, 2020, pp. 21–55.

UNESCO World Heritage. Petra.


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