Beating the Odds startling lack of diversity


Beating the Odds

by Laura Morgan Roberts, Anthony J. Mayo, Robin J. Ely, and David A. Thomas


Any list of top CEOs reveals a startling lack of diversity. Among the leaders of

Fortune 500 companies, for example, just 32 are women; with the recent

departure of Ken Chenault from American Express, just three are African-

American; and not one is an African-American woman. What’s going on?

This spring marks the 50th anniversary of the founding of the African-American Student

Union at Harvard Business School, and in preparation for the commemoration we have been

studying the careers of the approximately 2,300 alumni of African descent who have

graduated from HBS since its founding, in 1908. From that group we identified 532 African-

American women who graduated from 1977 to 2015. We analyzed the career paths of the 67

of them who have attained the position of chair, CEO, or other C-level executive in a

corporation or senior managing director or partner in a professional services firm, and we

conducted in-depth interviews with 30 of those 67.

How did these women beat the odds? Certainly, they are well prepared and highly

competitive in the job market; according to our data, they have invested more years in

higher education, at more-selective institutions, than their colleagues and their non–

African-American classmates. Yet as is the case for all those who have managed to scale the

“I think the experience of

being black in America

creates resilience—a steady

steadiness. And it creates

courage and pride. Not pride

in a boastful way, but being

proud, as you need to be in

moments when you feel

completely rejected,

completely ignored,

overlooked, sidelined.”

—A senior executive of a

Fortune 50 financial

services firm

heights of corporate America, it wasn’t simply personal strengths and talents that got them

there. It was the willingness and ability of others to recognize, support, and develop those

strengths and talents. We wish to speak to both elements of success.

Too often we see business leaders struggle

to advance members of underrepresented

groups because they model their

development strategies on their own

paths to success. They believe they’re

good at spotting and supporting talent,

but their support is informed by their own

experience: “I looked like that five years

ago, and this is what I needed to grow into

the next level.” Our research suggests that

company leaders are best able to

recognize talent and understand others’

development needs when those talents

and needs present themselves as theirs did;

they often overlook—or are baffled by how

to develop—talent that looks different. So

in our study we asked: What lessons can

aspiring leaders—specifically, women of

color and members of other

underrepresented groups—take from the

careers of highly successful African-American women? Moreover, what can corporate

leaders learn about how to spot and develop black women’s talents, and what might such

lessons teach us about how to cultivate the talents of underrepresented groups more


In simple terms, the answer to the question of what it takes to succeed can be reduced to a

single capacity: resilience. To be sure, resilience has been widely celebrated as a character

virtue in the past decade, and it plays a role in every success narrative, regardless of a

person’s race or gender. But the African-American women we interviewed seemed to rely

more heavily than others on that quality, because of the frequency with which they

encountered obstacles and setbacks resulting from the intersecting dynamics of race,

gender, and other identities. In each case they bounced back, refused to get distracted or

derailed, and maintained forward progress. One explained, “We were all told that you had to

be smarter or run faster or jump higher or be better than anybody else around you just to

stay in the game. That was a lesson from early, early on—from my parents, teachers,

mentors, church. So you come [to your job] with that orientation.”

The women we studied developed three skills that were key to their resilience: emotional

intelligence, authenticity, and agility. They became EQ experts, adept at both reading the

interpersonal and political dynamics of their organizations and managing their reactions to

situations that threatened to undermine their sense of competence and well-being—what

some scholars call “identity abrasions.” They practiced authentic leadership through deep

self-awareness and an ability to craft their own identities. And they demonstrated agility in

their capacity to deftly transform obstacles (including self-doubt and excessive scrutiny)

into opportunities to learn, develop, and ultimately exceed expectations.

These skills can help propel anyone’s career. All professionals and the organizations in

which they work can benefit from cultivating and leveraging emotional intelligence,

authenticity, and agility. While those skills are essential for every career, they are especially

critical for members of historically disadvantaged groups. To that end, we hope that the

stories of the women we interviewed will inspire young people from underrepresented

groups who are still deciding what kind of career path makes sense for them. Despite the

discouraging lack of representation at the very top of companies, the stories offer a road

map to the high-level jobs from which future CEOs will emerge.

About the Research

For the research initiative associated

with the 50th anniversary of the

founding of the African-American

Student Union at Harvard Business

School, we built a database of all the

graduates of African descent since the

school’s founding, in 1908—

approximately 2,300 people. Of the

1,821 who graduated from 1977 to 2015,

we were able to collect complete work

histories for 1,381 using information

from LinkedIn, Bloomberg

biographies, alumni records, and

other public sources. We then

conducted deep dives into the careers

of those 1,381 to better understand

their routes to senior positions. We

discovered that only 67 of the 532

women in the group, or about 13%,

The Visibility/Invisibility Conundrum

Before turning to the skills crucial to resilience, let’s examine one of the biggest challenges

faced by the women we studied: the double-edged sword of visibility and invisibility. On

one hand, because they are anomalies in their organizations, African-American women

stand out. “I was always the only black person,” one senior finance executive told us. “I

literally spent the first 20 years not really ever seeing another black person in the day-to-day

course of work.” Many of the women reported feeling as though they were “on display,”

which can lead to an inhibiting and potentially limiting self-consciousness. “It makes you

work hard to make sure you’re never misstepping,” said one chief investment officer. In a

sense, their race and gender put these women under a spotlight, and that can be exhausting.

Some described it as a kind of tax—one that majority employees don’t have to pay, and one

that could easily derail a career.

Sometimes, however, these women found

benefits in their hypervisibility. “There are so

many rooms I’ve gone into in my life where I

was the only black person, and I immediately

started to see that as an advantage,” said the

vice chair of an investment firm. “Because

they’re going to look, they’re going to

listen….They’re wondering how I got into the

room, so I have an opportunity to get their

attention. All I have to do is deliver into that


On the other hand, black women are

sometimes made to feel as though they’re

invisible. Some report having been mistaken

for secretaries or even members of the

waitstaff when starting new jobs. These

had attained the senior executive

level. (By comparison, 40% of the

non–African-American HBS alumni in a

matched sample had attained senior

executive status.) We reached out to

those 67 women and interviewed 30 in


instances of mistaken identity often create

awkward scenarios, requiring executives to

announce themselves and their qualifications

just to find meeting locations or access

necessary resources. Instead of obsessing

over these slights and low expectations,

though, some used invisibility as a

launchpad. If colleagues underestimate you,

it’s easier to exceed expectations; if you’re not perceived as a threat, you may find a faster

path to promotion. One woman, a general manager in the media industry, described gaining

entry to meetings that more-formidable colleagues lacked access to. “Senior executives

would say, ‘Sure, you can come in,’ because they doubted me,” she told us. “If they had

known I was going to come in and get the jobs they wanted, they probably would have said


Navigating between the extremes of hypervisibility and invisibility can feel traumatic. One

is either performing under a microscope or being ignored, and self-esteem can take a hit in

either scenario. Having built the capacity for resilience, however, the women we studied

were consistently able to maneuver around this paradox, often turning the obstacles it

posed into opportunities.

Three Keys to Resilience

Let’s look now at how the women’s resilience was reinforced and enhanced through

emotional intelligence, authenticity, and agility.

Emotional intelligence.

A key component of this skill is the ability to manage and regulate one’s feelings. It’s easy to

envision the anger and resentment a rising executive might experience at being repeatedly

doubted or ignored. But the women we spoke with resisted knee-jerk reactions that might

have damaged their careers and developed the wherewithal to respond in more thoughtful

and constructive ways. They also became skilled at picking up on others’ emotions and

reacting strategically. “I’m really good at reading environments,” said a senior executive at a

Fortune 100 consumer-products firm. They exhibited an acute awareness of how others

perceived them—a form of empathy. “You have to be able to step outside yourself and see

how other people see you,” said the vice chair of a major investment bank. Most important,

when the way others viewed them diverged from their own perceptions, they refused to be

knocked off stride, holding on to their increasingly well-defined sense of self. One chief

financial officer described the process this way: “You have to seek out messages and people

who affirm your identity.”

EQ is especially useful for those who frequently encounter bias. Research is clear, for

example, that successful black women walk a tightrope of emotional expression. Although

eager to advance, they may be penalized if they appear “too ambitious.” They are often

characterized as “intimidating,” and their mistakes are apt to be held against them,

especially when the “angry black woman” stereotype is triggered. “I almost feel you have to

overrely on EQ, because people come to the table with natural biases—you have to be

hypersensitive and patient,” said a senior executive in a financial services firm, adding,

“While some can react immediately to a difficult situation, as a black person I am conscious

about modulating and tempering my response.” She was especially insightful when

reflecting on the mixed blessing of this ability: “On one hand, it’s great that I have

developed this skill, but on the other hand, it’s sad that I had to.”


This skill involves aligning one’s personal sense of self with its outward expression—actively

crafting one’s identity and revealing it in a way that feels genuine. Like emotional

intelligence, it requires a high level of self-awareness. Research cited elsewhere in this issue

makes clear that disclosing personal information—a key part of behaving authentically—can

be especially tricky for minorities. (See “Diversity and Authenticity,” HBR March–April

2018.) The executives we interviewed found ways to master that challenge. They described

“The times I felt I did my

absolute best at work were

when I had the support of a

good leader who understood

me and what I could bring.”

—A global finance director

being candid about their opinions, transparent about their motives, and vocally committed

to their values. In fact, “transparency” and “candor” were two of the words they used most

frequently to describe their leadership styles.

For these women, authenticity has also

involved aligning their racial identity with

their leadership positions. Some found

roles within their companies that

explicitly invited them to draw on that

identity, giving them latitude to bring it

front and center. They were then able to

parlay the visibility afforded by those

roles into broader opportunities for

leadership. For instance, when her

employer set a goal of investing in

minority-owned businesses, one woman—now a senior investment officer—stepped into an

intrapreneurial leadership role by building a business that became the firm’s primary

strategic imperative. Suddenly her gender, race, and residence in a historically black

community became visible assets that deepened her authentic engagement with her career.

“That became a turning point of my job—I was actually able to bring these differences to

work every day,” she told us. “All of a sudden there were unique differences I was bringing

to the table.” Other women launched entrepreneurial ventures that aligned their passions

for business and social engagement, serving the needs of diverse stakeholders across the



This is the ability to effectively confront and nimbly transform obstacles and roadblocks into

opportunities throughout one’s career. The women we interviewed were well aware that

many of their colleagues and bosses held low expectations of them—expectations that

continued, in some cases, even as they advanced into senior jobs. The CEO of a large socialservices

organization put it this way: “I can’t say that I ever went into a job where people

just looked at my credentials and accepted them as legitimate—there was always this

question of ‘Are you really qualified?’ or ‘Did you really do the things you said you did?’ I

don’t think I reached a point in my career, other than my last role, when that wasn’t a


Not surprisingly, many grew frustrated with the persistent doubting of their abilities. “I’m

misunderstood, treated like the nanny, and left to deal with or clean up after [male

executives’] hasty decisions,” said one senior leader. “I’m forever exhausted by people

thinking the reason I have the senior role I’m in is that I’m black, not that I’m excellent.”

Despite their frustration, the women were neither paralyzed nor defined by how they were

seen. One explained, “I’m keenly aware of who I am and that I may look and behave in ways

that are different from others, but I don’t really focus on that….When I walk into a room and

some of the people who don’t know me think I work for the people who work for me, I’m

aware of it. But I don’t think about it. I don’t sweat it. I don’t stress about it. I think that’s

one of the things that has helped me: I don’t let other people’s insecurities be my own.”

Some leveraged their confluence of race, gender, and professional identity to seek roles in

which they could contribute from a position of strength. “Let’s be honest: I tick a lot of

boxes for people,” said a C-suite executive of a major entertainment firm. “They get a

package of someone who’s female, who’s African-American, who has an MBA from an elite

academic institution. So there I am—the purple unicorn.” By looking at the situation

pragmatically instead of letting it fuel self-doubt, she sees how her interests and the firm’s

are aligned: She gets a great job, great money, and the chance to have an impact, while the

firm gets stellar results and a chance to “tick the boxes.”

Most of the leaders we interviewed took an unconventional path to the top. Their careers

were characterized by twists and turns, with lateral moves and promotions accompanying

changes in sector, industry, function, or employer. They pursued intriguing opportunities to

learn, and if a role or a company didn’t allow them to grow, they activated their networks

“A large part of this whole

dance of being successful in

corporate America is about

creating space for people to

trust you and for you to trust

them. And that comes with


—A financial services

business unit director

Further Reading

“Rethinking Political Correctness”

Robin J. Ely, Debra E. Meyerson, and

Martin N. Davidson

HBR, September 2006

and identified new opportunities. They

remained professionally engaged

throughout the arc of their careers,

sometimes delaying or forgoing personal

interests and commitments. One leader

attributed her agility to advice she had

received from Nelson Mandela: “There’s

going to be a point in your career where

someone’s going to tap you on the

shoulder and ask you to do something

that’s not going to make any sense. That

might be your opportunity to manifest

your true leadership and have a huge

impact in your life and on this world.”

The Importance of Relationships

Success requires more than personal attributes such as EQ, authenticity, and agility; it

requires that someone recognize and value those vital skills. Research over decades points

to the critical role of nurturing relationships and affirming contexts. One senior executive

stated, “Somebody has to be committed to your success for you to really do well in [the

corporate] environment. I’ve learned that those relationships matter a lot. I thought you

could just work hard and be smart and that would do it, but it’s not enough.”

The success of the women we studied, like

that of most people, depended on their

having developed relationships with people

who recognized their talent, gave them a safe

space in which to make and learn from

mistakes, provided candid and actionable

feedback about their performance, and

“The Truth About Mentoring

Minorities: Race Matters”

David A. Thomas

HBR, April 2001

Our Separate Ways: Black and White

Women and the Struggle for

Professional Identity

Ella L.J. Edmondson Bell and Stella M.


Harvard Business School Press 2001

Breaking Through: The Making of

Minority Executives in Corporate


David A. Thomas and John J. Gabarro

Harvard Business School Press 1999

“How Star Women Build Portable


Boris Groysberg

HBR, February 2008

generally made it their business to support

them and create opportunities for them to

succeed. Many of the women pointed to

managers, mentors, and sponsors who had

helped them discover and actualize their best

selves. Here’s how one described it: “I was

fortunate that early in my career I was in

places where I didn’t feel this isolation and

where I was desperately loved. The people

who worked with me, the people who were

my bosses, they cared about my personhood

hugely and without acknowledging it; they

took into account the somewhat obvious fact

that there were not people like me around—

without going out of their way to say that.”

She continued, “They did go out of their way

to put me in as much contact as they could

and give me as much exposure as they could

to meetings that I definitely didn’t have to be in. They said, ‘Come into the room. Be here.

Just listen. I think it would be good for you.’”

Several women were inspired by managers and mentors to expand their vision of what they

could achieve. One remarked, “I was just fortunate that I had a mentor who said, ‘You don’t

think you’re ready, but I see your potential. Trust me.’ I did, and he really helped me see

what was possible. I worked with him, for him, for many years growing a division where I

cut my teeth in P&L management. That was scary and exciting.” And several gave credit to

managers who advocated for them throughout their careers. One noted, “There has to be

someone at the table saying, ‘This person deserves that opportunity, that raise, that global

assignment, that acknowledgment.’”

Such relationships became even more important as the women sought and took on

challenging new roles. They relied on trusted advisers to give them the critical feedback that

so many managers fail to share, especially with employees whose backgrounds are different

from their own. One woman stated, “I think I’ve had the right mentors giving me the right

kind of feedback, and I was able to hear.” Those advisers also provided support and air cover

that enabled many women to learn from mistakes without derailing their careers. When one

executive launched a business operation in another country, her success was bolstered by a

CEO who “was a tremendous champion,” she said. “He was just not going to let me fail, no

matter what.”


When African-American women are underrepresented in an organization’s senior leadership

roles despite robust academic credentials and work experience, their struggles often suggest

a broader problem: a workplace that fails to offer every employee equal access to

opportunities for growth. Much of the narrative about women and African-Americans in

corporate life focuses on derailment, plateauing, and off-ramping—and that’s doubly true

for African-African women. As the women we interviewed demonstrate, that narrative need

not be the rule. However, it takes extraordinary ability, perseverance, and support to

transcend it. The insights gleaned in our study are important not just for African-Americans

and women; they’re essential for any manager who recognizes what research has shown

over and over again—that an organization’s diversity is its strength.

A version of this article appeared in the March–April 2018 issue (pp.126–131) of Harvard Business Review.

Laura Morgan Roberts (lro[email protected]) is a teaching professor at Georgetown University.

Anthony J. Mayo ([email protected]) is a senior lecturer at Harvard Business School.

Robin J. Ely is the Diane Doerge Wilson Professor of Business Administration and the senior associate dean

for culture and community at Harvard Business School.

David A. Thomas ([email protected]) is the president of Morehouse College.


This article is about RACE



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Raf Jamil 14 days ago

Very inspiring and authentic article. Thank you.




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