Capstone Mini Literature Review
COPD: Causes, Issues, Treatment, and Prevention
Walden University HLTH 4900
Instructor: Professor Montrece Ransom
COPD: Causes, Issues, Treatment, and Prevention
Good health is one of the essential requirements for human beings. However, diseases continue manifesting themselves and negatively affecting people. One of these diseases is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a trending lung condition that is associated with smoking. This disease has had an impact on the allocation of health care resources worldwide. To diagnose the disease, a series of lung volume and flow tests are performed, along with history and physical. The symptoms and impairments to the patient determine the extent of medical treatments required. The most common types of treatments include smoking cessation, immunizations for flu and pneumonia, pharmacological treatments that include respiratory nebulizer or inhaler therapy, and supplemental oxygen to help reduce symptoms of exacerbations. Self-management programs and pulmonary rehabilitation has shown to improve outcomes, improve lung function, and increase quality of life.
COPD Statistics and Epidemiological Data
In terms of epidemiology, COPD is a chronic inflammatory lung disease. The disease triggers obstructed airflow from the lungs. COPD patients exhibit symptoms such as wheezing, sputum, cough, and breathing difficulty. The main causes of COPD include smoking, long-term exposure to polluted environments, and alpha-1 deficiency. In terms of statistical data, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention eludes that the disease affects over 15 million Americans. Additionally, over 150,000 Americans die of COPD annually making it the fourth leading cause of death. For that reason, many experts, researchers, clinicians, and medical professionals have conducted intensive research about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to aid in prevention and treatment.
Quality of Healthcare delivery and research within and outside the U.S.
According to the study conducted by the American Lung Association (2021a), COPD is caused by long-term exposure to irritants that cause complications in the airways and lungs. The disease is also caused by smoking tobacco that contributes to about 90% of the cases. For example, cigarette smoking releases over 7000 toxic chemicals that negatively affect the lungs, air sacs, and air tubes, thus causing COPD. The study also reveals that non-smokers exposed to pollutants can suffer from COPD. Hereditary through genetic is also a primary cause of COPD, especially in people with alpha-1 deficiency. American Lung Association (2021a) also presents risk factors for COPD, including asthmatic individuals, exposure to tobacco smoke, exposure to chemicals and dust, exposure to fumes from coal and charcoal, and genetics. Overall, the study advises smokers to quit smoking as a preventative measure for COPD.
Factors Impacting Quality Healthcare Delivery related to COPD
The research done by Criner & Han (2018) indicates that COPD is a chronic disease that remains underdiagnozed and undertreated regardless of being among the most preventable diseases. In the United States, millions of people have suffered from COPD, and the mortality rate remains high. The country has used billions of dollars to fight COPD, but patients continue facing health complications associated with the disease. The findings indicate that many cases of COPD are associated with smoking. Criner & Han (2018) also elude that the disease continues overburdening women and vulnerable groups in low socioeconomic status. Behavior theories have been used in counseling patients to change their lifestyle habits. Overall, the research indicates that COPD can be prevented or combated through telemedicine, tele-rehabilitation, and . The use of the COPD National Action Plan is also fundamental in engaging key stakeholders to prevent, diagnose, treat, and promote health awareness to those at risk.
Economic Evaluation and Financial Management of COPD
Dritsaki et al. (2016) perform a cost-utility analysis to determine how coping, education and self-management programs associate with COPD. The study also involved the analysis of 30 primary care settings through a randomized controlled trial. Therefore, the economic evaluation on SPACE for COPD depicts its cost-effectiveness that brings clinical improvements. Overall, the authors also elude those patients adhere to recommended community physiotherapist visits, respiratory clinic visits, and emergency department visits after implementing self-management programs.
Health and Wellness Promotion and Prevention Strategies
The study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) focuses on the public health strategic framework for preventing COPD. For example, all the stakeholders provide their insights on preventing the disease from saving millions of Americans diagnosed with COPD. The study also reveals that men are more exposed to this disease than women, such that the mortality rate for men remains higher than for women with COPD. Patients with COPD exhibit symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, and wheezing. In terms of prevention, stakeholders advise people to quit smoking because at least 75% of COPD is caused by cigarette smoking. Overall, the student presents a treatment plan for COPD that includes encouraging people to be physically active and feed on a healthy diet. Smoking cessation and preventing exposure to chemicals, toxins, and pollutants can assist in self-management to meet public health goals.
Importance of Team approach for Patient-Centered Care
Gardener et al. (2017) argue that battling COPD can be overwhelming for most patients. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the burden associated with managing COPD to offer the most suitable support needed by patients to manage their lives with COPD. The study eluded that and utilizing evidence-based tools can play critical roles in determining support needs for COPD patients. Gardener et al. (2017) relied on systematic searches to determine the various support needed, such as understanding the disease, medication, and symptom management, modifying lifestyles, and controlling feelings and worries. The support needs also included providing physical and financial support, building strong family relationships, fighting depression and anxiety, and encouraging COPD patients to embrace social and recreational life. All the mentioned domains indicate that patients can manage their lives and that relies on the Support Needs Approach for Patients.
COPD Across Class, Race, Ethnicity, and Culture
Pleasants et al. (2016) focus on the healthcare disparities affecting COPD patients. Although some countries have made remarkable milestones in fighting COPD, some areas continue facing a disproportionate burden of COPD due to disparities that affect smokers, those working in polluted environments, and people of low socioeconomic status. In other words, polluted occupation, massive use of tobacco, intrauterine and childhood exposures, and household and indoor pollution remain the primary risk factors for COPD for those in low socioeconomic status as eluded by Pleasants et al. (2016). Also, according to data from the National Institute of Health (2021), COPD cases in relation to ethnicity, show that 11 percent of American Indians have COPD, ten percent of multiracial people have COPD, up 6 percent of the COPD population, along with sixteen percent of whites and three percent of Hispanics. Culture is a major determining factor of patients actually diagnosed with COPD. For instance, whites are more likely to have regular check-ups which is why the percentage of whites diagnosed with COPD is higher, whereasHispanics are less likely to seek regular medical care due to lack of trust in healthcare professionals or affordability of health insurance. Even though the COPD National Action Plan tries to bridge this gap in the affordability of services, it is still a major issue and influences the treatment and management of COPD. Health care services for COPD are better in more developed countries globally, however in developing countries healthcare services for COPD is inadequate.
Evidence-Based Factors of Performance and Reimbursement
Lastly, Rinne et al. (2017) conducted a study to determine hospital readmissions associated with COPD. The study indicates that the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have implemented various plans to reduce hospital readmissions for COPD. For that reason, Rinne et al. (2017) examine the correlation between COPD readmissions and other quality measures based on the findings from 3,075 hospitals. The study compared readmission to other measures and realized a modest correlation with other diseases such as stroke, pneumonia, acute myocardial infection, and heart failure. To have effective COPD programs, it is necessary to improve the level of management. According to the National Institute of Health (2021), training all medical professionals and practitioners on COPD and best management techniques is essential. Improving healthcare management programs for COPD would assist in getting appropriate tools and equipment needed in providing quality medical treatment for COPD patients, create awareness in public of the disease, and aid in early diagnosis and management of the disease. This type of COPD program would be evaluated by the healthcare management team by assessing the effectiveness of the services provided in the patient outcomes.
Advance Social Changes in Health Education and Promotion related to COPD
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease continues threatening the lives of many people worldwide. Effective communication is essential in healthcare for providing the right information to the patient and to effectively manage treatment with evidence-based knowledge. A is critical in management of the disease.Various studies have been conducted to better understand how to diagnose, prevent, and treat the disease. Therefore, it is paramount to implement insights from these resources to reduce COPD prevalence and reduce mortality associated with it.Most importantly, some of the prevention measures will also significantly help people prevent other diseases such as cancer that are highly attributed to smoking and exposure to toxins, chemicals, and other pollutants.
American Lung Association. (2021a). COPD causes and risk factors. https://www.lung.org/lung-health-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/copd/what-causes-copd
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Public health strategic framework for COPD prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/copd/pdfs/framework_for_copd_prevention.pdf
Criner, R. N. & Han, M.K. (2018, May). COPD Care in the 21st Century: A public healthpriority. Respiratory Care 63(5), 591-600. http://rc.rcjournal.com/content/63/5/591
Ding, B., Small, M., Bergstrom, G., & Holmgren, U. (2017). COPD symptom burden: impact on health care resource utilization, and work and activity impairment. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 12, 677-689. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5327905/
Dritsaki, M., Johnson-Warrington, V., & Mitchell, K. (2016). An economic evaluation of a self-management programme of activity, coping and education for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic Respiratory Disease, 13(1), 48-56. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1479972315619578
Gardener, A. C., Ewing, G., Kuhn, I., & Farquhar, M. (2018). Support needs of patients with COPD: a systematic literature search and narrative review. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 13, 1021-1035. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5877489/
National Institute of Health. (2021). COPD National Action Plan.
Pleasants, R. A., Riley, I. L., & Mannino, D. M. (2016). Defining and targeting healthDisparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 11, 2475-2496. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5065167/
Rinne, S. T., Castaneda, J., Lindenauer, P. K., Cleary, P. D., Paz, H. L., & Gomez, J. L. (2017). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease readmissions and other measures of hospital quality. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 196(1), 47-55. https://eds.s.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?vid=2&sid=7a085c09-9b85-40a7-a89d-d077dd2c4196%40redis&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPXNoaWImc2l0ZT1lZHMtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=000404473300012&db=edswsc
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