Characteristics of situations and their influence on consumption

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Define situational influence
Explain the four types of situations and their relevance
to marketing strategy
Summarize the five characteristics of situations and
their influence on consumption
Discuss ritual situations and their importance to
consumers and marketers
Describe the use of situational influence in developing
marketing strategy
Learning Objectives
Situational influence includes
all those factors particular to a
time and place that do not follow
from a knowledge of the stable
attributes of the consumer and
the stimulus and that have an
effect on current behavior.
Consumers often behave very
differently depending on
The Nature of Situational Influence
The following demonstrates how
going to Las Vegas often brings about
different behavior by consumers!
YouTube Spotlight
Reinvention Visit Las Vegas
The Nature of Situational Influence
Ingram Publishing
Veni/Getty Images
The Nature of Situational Influence
Four types of situations:
1. The Communications Situation
2. The Purchase Situation
3. The Usage Situation, and
4. The Disposition Situation
The Nature of Situational Influence
The five key dimensions or characteristics are
1. Physical surroundings
2. Social surroundings
3. Temporal perspectives
4. Task definition
5. Antecedent states
Situations can be described on a number of dimensions
which determine their influence on consumer behavior.
Situational Characteristics and
Consumer Behavior
Physical Surroundings
Store Atmosphere is the sum of all the physical
features of a retail environment.
Atmospherics influences consumer judgments of the
quality of the store and the stores image.
Atmosphere is referred to as servicescape when
describing a service business such as a hospital,
bank or restaurant.
Situational Characteristics and
Consumer Behavior
Typology of Service Environments
Physical Surroundings
Situational Characteristics and
Consumer Behavior
Components of physical surroundings:
1. Colors
2. Aromas
3. Music
4. Crowding
Situational Characteristics and
Consumer Behavior
BlackJack3D/Getty Images

Situational Characteristics and
Consumer Behavior

Temporal Perspectives
Limited purchase time often
limits search.
Internet shopping is growing
rapidly as a result of the time
pressures felt by consumers.
Temporal perspectives deal with the effect of time on
consumer behavior.
Situational Characteristics and
Consumer Behavior
Onoky Photography/Glow Images

Task Definition
Task definition is the reason the consumption activity is
Major distinction between purchases for self versus gift.
Consumers give gifts for many reasons:
social expectations
ritualized situations
to elicit return favors
Situational Characteristics and
Consumer Behavior
YouTube Spotlight
Walmarts Birthday Surprise Campaign
Ingram Publishing
Types of antecedent states:
Transient feeling states that are generally not tied to a
specific event of object.
Momentary Conditions
Temporary states of being (tired, ill, having extra money,
being broke, etc.)
Situational Characteristics and
Consumer Behavior

Critical to marketers
because they often involve
prescribed consumption
However, ritual behavior can
involve injurious
consumption, such as binge
A ritual situation is a socially defined occasion that triggers
a set of interrelated behaviors that occur in a structured
format and that have symbolic meaning.
Ritual Situations
Ronnie Kaufman/Blend Images LLC
Applications in Consumer Behavior
Martha Stewart Pets Collection/PetSmart
Ritual situations generally
have consumption patterns
associated with them.
This Martha Stewart Pets
Collection ad is tapping
into the holiday ritual

Identify the different situations that might involve the
consumption of a product.
Determine which products or brands are most likely to be
purchased or consumed across those situations.
One method of dealing with this question is to jointly
scale situations and products.
Situational Influences and Marketing
Situational Influences and Marketing
Five Steps for Developing Situation-Based Marketing Strategies
1. Use observational studies, focus group discussions, depth
interviews, and secondary data to discover the various usage
satiations that influence the consumption of the product.
2. Survey a larger sample of consumers to better understand and
quantify how the product is used and the benefits sought in the
usage situation by the market segment.
3. Construct a .
4. Evaluate each cell in terms of potential.
5. Develop and implement a marketing strategy for those cells
that offer sufficient profit potential given your capabilities.
Situational Influences and Marketing
Situational Influences and Marketing

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