Controls in The Defensive Sector Paper

Defense Industrial Base Sector Organizations Critical Assets
A critical asset is any system, person, process, or data deemed vital to an organization of which when in crisis could cause a huge impact to the organization. Understanding this, the information age has brought a lot of opportunities that have revolutionized the world. Data is the new oil in the modern information age, and organizations are usinggathered data to gain valuable business insights(Manulis, 2021). The levels of data that organizations handle is high. That, coupled with the fact that the systems are ran with interconnected network and database systemscreates room for cyber security threats. Globally, the digital landscape is under constant risks from potential cyber threats due to the vulnerable nature of networked systems(Cristea, 2020). In the United States, there are 16 critical industrial sectors whose assets or systems are considered very vital that any interruption or destruction would have a devastating effect on security, national economic security, and/or national public health. This paper aims to give an insight into core target systems and processes in organizations at risk from global threats forone of the 16 critical industrial sectors, the Defense Industrial Base (DIB) Sector.
Defense Industrial Base (DIB) Sector
The DIB Sector is known to be the global industrial complex that enables the design, production, delivery, and maintenance of military weapons systems, subsystems, and components or parts to meet US military requirements(CISA, n.d.). The DIB partnership includes Department of Defense (DoD) components, over 100,000 DIB companies and their subcontractors who perform under contract to the DoD, companies that provide supplementary materials and services to the DoD, and government-owned/contractor-operated and (CISA, n.d.). DIB assets are in many countries, and they provide products and services that are vital to mobilize, deploy, and sustain the operations of the military (CISA, n.d.). Due to having assets in various countries, the sector is exposed to cyber threats both domestic and foreign.
DIB Organizations
DIB organizations are grouped into two charters as shown in figure 1: Government Coordinating Council Charter (GCC) and Sector Coordinating Council Charter (SCC). While the GCC mostly comprise of government infrastructures, the SCC is mostly private enterprises with affiliations to the government(CISA, n.d.). An attack on any of the organizations from these charters could affect other organizations and probably cripple or cause a devasting damage or destruction of critical assets because of the interconnection that exists between charters and organizations.The GCC is a parallel and partner to the SCC(CISA, n.d.). Within the Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC), the two charters collaborate to uncover and share threat intelligence, assess, and mitigate vulnerabilities, and monitor the DIB’s security and resiliency(CISA, n.d.).
Figure 1
DIB Membership

Government Coordinating Council Charter (GCC)
The GCC’s purpose is to strengthen the security and resilience of the DIB, particularly those firms designated by the DoD as vital infrastructure(CISA, n.d.). The GCC’s mission is to facilitate interagency, intergovernmental, and and across sectors, as well as to collaborate with SCCs on public-private partnerships(CISA, n.d.).The GCC serves as a venue for government partners to share information, collaborate, and define and monitor actions to strengthen the DIB sector’s security and resilience. Vital organizations under the GCC can be seen in Table 1.
Sector Coordinating Council Charter (SCC)
Table 1 also shows organizations under the SCC that face risk of a cyberattack. The SCC’s objective is to support the US Defense Industry’s advancements in security, resilience, and critical infrastructure protection, both as an industry coordinating body within the DIB sector and in collaboration with the DIB SSA and the GCC(CISA, n.d.). The National Defense Information Sharing and Analysis Center (National Defense ISAC), which supports the SCC as the sector’s information sharing, analysis, and operational mechanismmaintains relevant coordination with operational activities of the Federal government and other operational organizations(CISA, n.d.).
Core Target Systems at Risk
Looking at Table 1,DIB is composed of various organizations of vast trades making DIB acomplex and huge sector governed by various regulations, laws, treaties, and practices. With such a huge database of organizations that affects government, private, and international organizations, it is important to identify systems that are considered vital to the sector such that if

Table 1
DIB Charters and their Organizations
Government Coordinating Council Sector Coordinating Council
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
National Security Council
U.S. Department of Commerce
Office of Technology Evaluation, Bureau of Industry and Security
U.S. Department of Defense
Director of the Joint Staff
Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense and Global Security
Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Logistics and Material Readiness
Office of DoD Chief Information Officer
Office of the Chief, National Guard Bureau
Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment
Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness
U.S. Department of Energy
U.S. Department of Homeland Security
Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency
U.S. Department of Justice
Federal Bureau of Investigation
U.S. Department of State
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
U.S. Department of the Treasury
Office of Critical Infrastructure Protection & Compliance Policy
Abbvie, Inc., Accenture Federal Services LLC, American Bureau of Shipping, AECOM, Aerojet Rocketdyne, The Aerospace Corporation, Aerospace Industries Association, Airbus Defense and Space, Airbus Americas, American Society of Industrial Security (ASIS) International, American Systems, Inc., Analog Devices, Inc, Armstrong Teasdale, Ashland LLC, Autodesk, Inc., BAE Systems, Inc., Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation, Bank of America, The Boeing Company, Booz Allen Hamilton, Box, Inc., CACI International, Inc., Centurum, Inc, Cisco Systems, Inc., Citigroup, Inc., Click Bond, Inc., Cobham Advanced Electronic Solutions, Inc., Concurrent Technologies Corporation, Corning Inc., Covestro LLC, CPI International, Inc., Cubic Corporation, Defense and Intelligence Council, Dell (EMC Corporation), Deloitte Global, The Dow Chemical Company, DRS Technologies, Inc., DynCorp International, Eastern Research Group, Inc., Eastman Chemical Company, Eaton Aerospace Ltd., Eccalon LLC, Emerson Electric Co., The Espy Corporation, Exostar, Fifth-Third Bank, FlighSafety International, Frontier Technology, Inc, General Atomics, General Dynamics, General Electric Aviation, GE Digital, General Motors, Honeywell, Huntington Ingalls Industries, iDirect Government, InCadence Strategic Solutions, Ingalls Shipbuilding, Institute for Defense Analyses, Inc., Integrated Security Technologies, IPG Photonics, Integrity Solutions Consulting Group, LLC, Intertek Laboratories, Inc, IT Cadre, John Hopkins University / Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL), JRC Integrated Systems, Inc., Kratos Defense, L3Harris Technologies, Inc., Leidos, Leonardo DRS, Inc., LGS Innovations, Lumen, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Lyondellbasell Industries, Inc., ManTech International, Maxar Technologies, Inc., Mercury Systems, Inc., Michael Baker International LLC, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, MITRE Corporation, MITRON, Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., Motorola Solutions, Inc., M-Tron Industries, Inc, MtronPTI, National Classification Management Society (NCMS), National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA), National Defense ISAC, NBC Universal Media, Net Vision Consultants, Inc., Nextera Energy, Inc., North Atlantic Industries, Northern Aviation Services, Inc., Northrop Grumman Corporation, Ocean Riders, Olin Corporation, Oshkosh Defense LLC, Palo Alto Networks, The Parsons Corporation, Peerless Technologies, Pennsylvania State University (PSU ARL), Peraton, Inc.,, Pfizer, PPG Aerospace, PreCast Corporation, Precision Castparts Corporation, Proctor & Gamble, RAND Corporation, Raytheon Technologies, Referentia Systems, Inc., Rocket Communications, Inc., Rockwell Collins Aerospace, Rockwell Collins, Inc., Rolls-Royce, S&P Global, Inc., Saab USA, Salesforce, SAP America, Inc., SAP NS2, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Securitas Critical Infrastructure Services, Inc. (SCIS), ServiceNow, Sierra Nevada Corporation, Slack Technology, Inc., Software Engineering Institute, Space Dynamics Laboratory, SRC, Inc., System Planning & Analysis, Inc. (SPA), Textron, Inc., Toyon Research Corporation, Ultra Electronics Defense, Ultra Electronics- USSI, United Launch Alliance LLC, United Technologies, University of Nebraska / DoD UARC, US Bank, Undersea Sensor Systems, Inc., Varen Technologies, Verizon, Win-Tech, Inc., X8 LLC
attacked could become a catastrophe. Unlike other industrial sectors, the DIB is not solely defined by the type of goods and services it delivers, rather by who the customer for these goods and services is(CISA, n.d.). Companies performing under direct contract with the DoD, their subcontractors, and companies providing incidental materials and services to either are all included and are from various industrial sectors and sub-sectors. These include both services and products, and ranges from one-person or family-owned businesses to the world’s largest corporations as listed in Table 1(CISA, n.d.). As a result of the large and complex collection of organizations, the DoD is tasked to collect information such as contractor and government entity code, company name, location information, subject matter expert, security officers information, etc. on critical assets(CISA, n.d.).
The core target systems and networks for the DIB sector ranges from machineries to personnel. Protecting these systems and networks should be of utmost importance to DoD. Some of these systems are GPS trackers, aircrafts, missiles, nuclear weapons, rockets, submarines, combat vehicles, weapons, ammunition, computers, automated systems, cloud database, and employees of contractors and subcontractors. Given the sensitive nature of this sector, hackers and the DIB sectors since the sector carries highly confidential data and intellectual property.
Furthermore, the DIB is divided into Segments, Sub-segments, and Commodities, which manufacture weapon system platforms, components, and expendables (CISA, n.d.). This categorization is used throughout the Department of Defense to classify the contributions of specific DIB assets as well as to analyze the criticality using subject matter experts from each of the areas. The classification alsois most applicable to the analysis of impact on DoD mission accomplishment, but it may also contribute to the areas of economic, life, and health consequences. Furthermore, the classification aids in identifying the critical assets of the DoD. Table 2 lists out these segments in relation to the organizations.
Table 2
Critical Segments and Organizations
Segments Organizations
Jet Fighters
Drones GCC
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
National Security Council
Ammunition GCC
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
National Security Council
U.S. Department of Justice
U.S. Department of State
Combat Vehicle GCC
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
National Security Council
U.S. Department of State
Electronic Warfare
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
National Security Council
U.S. Department of Justice
U.S. Department of State
Information Technology
Command, Control, Computers and Accessories, and Intelligence
Data Security
Trainers and Simulators GCC
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
National Security Council
U.S. Department of Justice
U.S. Department of State
Tactical Missile
Strategic Missile GCC
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
National Security Council
U.S. Department of State
Surface Ships GCC
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
National Security Council
U.S. Department of State
Launch vehicle
Satellite GCC
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
National Security Council
U.S. Department of State
Troop Support
Soldier Systems
Smoke Obscurant
Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Systems GCC
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
National Security Council
U.S. Department of State
Weapons GCC
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
National Security Council
U.S. Department of Justice
U.S. Department of State

The US military bases provide accommodation services to soldiers as part of Troop Supportand serve as training centers, bunkers, or command centers(Solar, 2020). The military bases also store some vital assets and for these reasons, emphasis on security is important especially with bases in foreign land. The military base houses some of the critical segments listed in Table 2 such as aircrafts, ammunitions, weapons, combat vehicles, computers with highly classified data, missiles, and nuclear, biological, and chemical systems. A data breach to any military base could be very disastrous as it affects multiple organizations in both charters of the DIB(Cristea, 2020). (Burton &lain, 2020) stated that enemies mainly target military bases to obtain strategic intelligence data on the technology of the military to understand its capabilities.A potential breach to the DIB organizations could put some important data in the hands of the enemy and spell doom for the United States.
Potential Mode of Attack
Data is often viewed as a critical component of modern military surveillance and intelligence gathering. The DoD invests billions of dollars in military intelligence and surveillance systems(Eldem, 2020). The data collected and stored by these systems is highly sensitive and confidential and provides critical and timely information for special missions.
If these systems are accessed and data exfiltrated, there may be serious consequences(Karaman et al., 2016). Under the modern era of big data, hackers mainly use malware, phishing, and spoofing to target data systems leaving heavy losses on the victims(Manulis et al., 2021). Figure 2 is a depiction of a potential mode of attack to the DIB sector. An attacker could remotely through the internet, gain access to a DIB Organizations network and in turn gain access to the systems storing information on the critical segments. Alternatively, the attacker could go through a modem or a wireless device via a compromised VPN. An example of a remote breach is the RussianSandworm group using BlackEnergy to target NATO member nations and meddling in the US elections (Maynard, et al., 2020). Figure 3 shows a local attack. Often, organizations focus on external threats, overlooking the potential of the internal actors, of which some may be acting in ignorance, or the attack may be generated from system failure thereby shutting down critical infrastructures. In figure 3, two modes of attack are depicted. The first mode has an oblivious employee responding to a phishing email thereby granting the system access to the server and cloud server storing critical data on the segments. The second mode is a system malfunction that ends up sending corrupt data to the server which could leak information on critical segments or create a total shutdown of systems.
Figure 2
Remote Attack


Figure 3
Local Access within a DIB Organization

The DIB sector comprises of many organizations that are interconnected, and some are also connected to other sectors such as the communication and energy sector. A breach in any of the organizations of the DIB sector could be detrimental not only to the DoD, but to many private organizations with ties to the sector. Identifying the critical assets is the first step towards protecting them. These assets are not limited to systems and equipment alone, but to personnel, data, and organizations producing the commodities and segments.

Burton, J., & Lain, C. (2020). Desecuritising cybersecurity: towards a societal approach. Journal of Cyber Policy, 5(3), 449470.
CISA. (n.d.). Defense Industrial Base Sector | CISA.
CISA. (n.d.). Defense Industrial Base Sector Coordinating Council Charter | CISA.
CISA. (n.d.). Defense Industrial Base Sector-Specific Plan | CISA.
Cristea, L. M. (2020). Current security threats in the national and international context. JOURNAL of ACCOUNTING and MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS, 19(2), 351378.
Eldem, T. (2019). The Governance of Turkeys Cyberspace: Between Cyber Security and Information Security. International Journal of Public Administration, 43(5), 452465.
Evans, C. V. (2020). Future Warfare: Weaponizing Critical Infrastructure. Parameters: U.S. Army War College, 50(2), 3542.
Karaman, M., atalkaya, H., & Aybar, C. (2016). Institutional Cybersecurity from Military Perspective. International Journal of Information Security Science, 5(1), 17.
Manulis, M., Bridges, C. P., Harrison, R., Sekar, V., & Davis, A. (2020). Cyber security in New Space. International Journal of Information Security.
Maynard, P., McLaughlin, K., & Sezer, S. (2020). Decomposition and sequential-AND analysis of known cyber-attacks on critical infrastructure control systems. Journal of Cybersecurity, 6(1), 1s.
Solar, C. (2020). Cybersecurity and cyber defence in the emerging democracies. Journal of Cyber Policy, 121.



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