Development across the life span from infancy through late adulthood

Module 17

Infancy & Childhood

 

Psychology 1: General Psychology

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

J. Marie Hicks, Ph.D. Adjunct Psychology [email protected]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION (CONTD)

Developmental psychologists

Study a persons biological, emotional, cognitive, personal, and social development across the life span, from infancy through late adulthood

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

CONCEPTION & DEVELOPMENT

Prenatal period: three stages

Prenatal period extends from conception to birth and lasts about 266 days (9 months)

Three successive phases

germinal

embryonic

fetal

During prenatal period, a single cell will divide and grow to form 200 billion cells

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Germinal stage

first stage of prenatal development

two-week period following conception

Ovulation

release of an ovum or egg cell from a womens ovaries

Conception or fertilization

occurs if one of the millions of sperm penetrates the ovums outer membrane

after penetration, outer membrane becomes impenetrable to the millions of remaining sperm

fertilized ovum is called zygote

Embryonic stage

Second stage of the prenatal period

Spans the 2 to 8 weeks that follow conception

During this stage, cells divide and begin to differentiate into bone, muscle, and body organs

Fetal stage

Begins two months after conception and lasts until birth

Fetus develops vital organs, such as lungs, and physical characteristics that are distinctly human

During embryonic and fetal stages, the developing organism is especially vulnerable to toxic agents

Protected by the placenta

3

PRENATAL INFLUENCES

Placenta and teratogens

Placenta: organ that connects the blood

supply of the mother to that of the fetus

and acts like a filter, allows oxygen and

nutrients to pass through while keeping

out some toxic or harmful substances

Teratogen: any agent that can harm a developing

fetus (cause deformities or brain damage)

Birth defects and amniocentesis

Possible to test during fetal

stage for a number of genetic

errors

Amniocentesis

Downs syndrome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Placenta and teratogens

Placenta

organ that connects the blood supply of the mother to that of the fetus

acts like a filter: allows oxygen and nutrients to pass through while keeping out some toxic or harmful substances

Teratogen

any agent that can harm a developing fetus (cause deformities or brain damage)

disease, drug, or other environmental agent

Birth defects and amniocentesis

Possible to test during fetal stage for a number of genetic errors

Amniocentesis

medical test done between weeks 14 and 20 of pregnancy

involves inserting a long needle through the mothers abdominal muscles into the amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus

fetal cells are analyzed in the fluid

more than 450 genetic disorders can now be tested and identified

Birth defects and amniocentesis

Downs syndrome

results from extra 21st chromosome

causes abnormal physical traits

fold of skin at the corner of each eye, wide tongue, heart defects

abnormal brain development, resulting in degrees of mental retardation

 

4

PRENATAL INFLUENCES (CONTD)

Drugs and prenatal development

Drug use during pregnancy

Caffeine

Cocaine and other drugs

Smoking and nicotine

Alcohol

heavy drinking; fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

moderate drinking; fetal alcohol effects (FAE)

The environment and prenatal development

Lead

Air pollutants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Drugs and prenatal development

Drug use during pregnancy

caffeine

as little as one cup of coffee a day increases risk of having an underweight baby

cocaine and other drugs

pregnant women using drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or opiates had babies with

lower birth weight

poor feeding habits

greater risk for developing other problems

Smoking and nicotine

13% of pregnant women smoke

increases the risk of

ADHD (three times the risk)

low birth weight

pre-term deliveries

possible physical problems

SIDS

respiratory infections

Alcohol

heavy drinking; fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

FAS results from a mother drinking heavily during pregnancy, especially in the first 12 weeks

FAS results in

short stature, flattened nose, short eye openings, neurological changes, hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, deficits in information processing, drug and alcohol abuse

moderate drinking; fetal alcohol effects (FAE)

FAS results from a mother having 7 to 14 drinks per week during pregnancy

FAE less severe than FAS

FAE results in

deficiencies in cognitive tasks, academic skills, fine motor speed, and coordination

The environment and prenatal development

Lead

levels of lead in the blood system are associated with low IQ scores in children

likelihood of antisocial acts such as, assaults, truancy, and disorderly conduct

some lead sources = paint, gasoline, industrial products

Air pollutants

prenatal exposure to air pollutants, such as gasoline, diesel, and coal have negative impact on childrens cognitive development

 

5

NEWBORNS ABILITIES (CONTD)

Genetic development program

Mother contributes 23 chromosomes and father contributes 23 chromosomes

Each child receives a unique genetic program

Brain growth

Genetic program (after birth) regulates how the brain develops

Makes thousands of connections between neurons

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

NEWBORNS ABILITIES (CONTD)

Sensory development

Faces

4 months vs. 3 to 4 years

Hearing

one-month-olds vs. at 6 months

Touch

Smell and taste

infants at one-day-old vs. six-week-old infants

newborns

Depth perception

at 6 months

visual cliff

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sensory development

Faces

newborns show a preference for their mothers face over strangers faces the first few days after birth

newborns recognize a persons eyes

4 months

infant can visually distinguish his or her mothers face from strangers

3 to 4 years

visual abilities are equal to those of an adult

Sensory development

Hearing

one-month-olds have very keen hearing

can discriminate small sound vibrations

at 6 months, have developed the ability to make all sounds necessary to learn language

Touch

have well-developed sense of touch

will turn head when lightly touched on the cheek

touch also elicits other reflexes such as grasping and sucking

Smell and taste

infants at one-day-old can discriminate a few odors such as citrus and floral

six-week-old infants can smell the difference between their mother and a stranger

newborns have an inborn preference for both sweet and salt, dislike of bitter-tasting things

Depth perception

at 6 months, infants have developed depth perception

visual cliff

7

NEWBORNS ABILITIES (CONTD)

Motor development

Refers to the stages of motor skills that all infants pass through as they acquire the muscular control necessary for making coordinated movements

Proximodistal principle: Center to extremities

Cephalocaudal principle: Head to tail

Maturation

Developmental norms

Environmental stimulation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Motor development

Refers to the stages of motor skills that all infants pass through as they acquire the muscular control necessary for making coordinated movements

Proximodistal principle

states that parts closer to the center of the infants body develop before parts farther away

Cephalocaudal principle

states that parts of the body closer to the head develop before parts closer to the feet

Maturation

refers to developmental changes that are genetically or biologically programmed rather than acquired through learning or life experiences

Developmental norms

refers to the average age at which children perform various kinds of skills or exhibit abilities or behaviors

major milestones in infants motor development

crawling, walking

Environmental stimulation

appropriate stimulation for forming the visual system, learning to speak, emotional development, and motor development

infants cant perform complex cognitive, sensory or motor tasks, such as walking, talking, and reading until appropriate areas of their brains develop neural connections

genetic program needs and interacts with environmental stimulation to develop sensory, motor, and cognitive abilities

 

8

EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Definition

Refers to the influence and interaction of genetic factors, brain changes, cognitive factors, coping abilities, and cultural factors in the development of emotional behaviors, expressions, thoughts, and feelings

Temperament

Refers to relatively stable and long-lasting individual differences in mood and emotional behavior that emerge early in childhood; largely influenced by genetic factors

Temperament and emotions

Easy vs. Slow-to-warm-up vs. Difficult babies

No-single-category babies

Genetic influence vs. Environmental influence

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Definition

Refers to the influence and interaction of genetic factors, brain changes, cognitive factors, coping abilities, and cultural factors in the development of emotional behaviors, expressions, thoughts, and feelings

Temperament

Refers to relatively stable and long-lasting individual differences in mood and emotional behavior that emerge early in childhood; largely influenced by genetic factors

Temperament and emotions

Easy babies: happy and cheerful, regular sleeping and eating habits, adapted quickly to new situations

Slow-to-warm-up babies: more withdrawn, moody, and tended to take longer to adapt to new situations

Difficult babies: fussy, fearful of new situations, and more intense in their reactions

No-single-category babies: 35% of sample had variety of traits and couldnt be classified into one of the other three categories

Genetic influence

infants develop distinct temperaments very early, usually in the first 2 to 3 months of life

occur largely because of genetic factors rather than learning experiences

Environmental influence

involves factors such as family influence, poverty level, educational opportunities, and social class

interact with and can change the infants initial temperament

9

EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CONTD)

Temperament and emotions

Attachment

close, fundamental emotional bond that develops between the infant and his or her parents or caregiver

Attachment

Separation anxiety

Kinds of attachments

Kind of attachment formed in infancy is thought to be associated with the success of future adult relationships

Secure

Insecure

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Temperament and emotions

Attachment

close, fundamental emotional bond that develops between the infant and his or her parents or caregiver

as a child shows closer attachment, he or she shows more distress when parents or caregivers temporarily leave

Attachment

Separation anxiety

infants distress whenever parents leave Absolutely normal, has to do with development of object permanence, not attachment issues

Kinds of attachments

Kind of attachment formed in infancy is thought to be associated with the success of future adult relationships

Secure

characteristic of infants who use their parent as a safe home base from which they can wander off and explore their environments

associated with being better at resolving conflicts, being more trusting, enjoying relationships, and dealing better with anxiety

Insecure

characteristic of infants who avoid or show ambivalence or resistance toward parents

associated with being dependent, having poor social relationships, and showing more anxiety

10

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

Piagets theory

Cognitive development

refers to how a person perceives, thinks, and gains understanding of his or her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors

Jean Piaget

greatest impact on developmental psychology with cognitive development – both biologist and psychologist

Assimilation

process by which a child uses old methods or experiences to deal with new situations

Accommodation

process by which a child changes old methods to deal with or adjust to new situations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Piagets theory

Cognitive development

refers to how a person perceives, thinks, and gains understanding of his or her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors

Jean Piaget

greatest impact on developmental psychology with cognitive development

both biologist and psychologist

Assimilation

process by which a child uses old methods or experiences to deal with new situations

Accommodation

process by which a child changes old methods to deal with or adjust to new situations

 

11

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (CONTD)

Piagets four stages of cognitive development

 

Sensorimotor stage

 

Preoperational stage

 

Concrete operations

 

Formal operations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Piagets four stages of cognitive development

Sensorimotor stage

Birth to age 2

infants interact with and learn about their environments by relating their sensory experiences to their motor experiences

Object permanence

develops over a period of 9 months

refers to the understanding that objects or events continue to exist even if they can no longer be heard, touched, or seen

2. Preoperational stage

About age 2 to 7 years

children learn to use symbols, such as words or mental images, to solve simple problems and to think or talk about things that arent present

Conservation

the fact that even though the shape of some object or substance changes, the total amount stays the same

Egocentric thinking

viewing the world only from your own perspective and having difficulty appreciating someone elses

3. Concrete operations

About age 7 to 11 years

Children can perform a number of logical mental operations on concrete objects (physically present)

Conservation

children gradually master the concept of conservation during the concrete operations stage

Classification

ability to classify items by color and size for example

still have difficulty figuring out relationships among objects that arent present or imaginary situations

4. Formal operations

About age 12 to adulthood

Adolescents and adults develop the ability to think about and solve abstract problems in a logical manner

Adolescents develop thinking and reasoning typical of adults

Ability to think in a logical, systematic, and abstract way is one of the major characteristics of the formal operations stage

 

12

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Social development

How a person develops a sense of self or a self-identity, relationships with others, and the kinds of social skills important in personal interactions

Freuds psychosexual stages

Five different developmental periods

oral

anal

phallic

latency

genital

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Social development

Individual seeks pleasure from different areas of the body that are associated with sexual feelings

Freud

childs first five years are most important to social and personality development

Oral stage

Early infancy to 18 months

Pleasure seeking is around the mouth

Sucking, chewing, and biting

If fixated at this stage due to oral wishes being gratified too much or too little, could continue in adulthood seeking oral gratification

Anal stage

1.5 to 3 years

Infants pleasure seeking is centered on the anus and its functions of elimination

If fixated, will exhibit behavioral activities in either retention or elimination

retention

may take form of being neat, stingy, or rigid

elimination

may take form of being generous or messy

Phallic stage

3 to 6 years (early childhood)

Pleasure seeking is centered on the genitals

Competes with parent of same sex for affections and pleasures of the parent of the opposite sex

May result in feelings of inferiority for women and of having something to prove for men

Latency stage

6 to puberty (middle to late childhood)

Child represses sexual thoughts and engages in nonsexual activities

developing social and intellectual skills

During puberty, sexuality reappears

Genital stage

Puberty to adulthood

Individual has renewed sexual desires that he or she seeks to fulfill through relationships with members of the opposite sex

Successful resolution of the conflicts in the first three stages will lead to having energy to develop loving relationships and a healthy and mature personality

 

13

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONTD)

Eriksons psychosocial stages

Eight developmental periods encompassing the individuals development over their entire lifespan, during which an individuals primary goal is to satisfy desires associated with social needs

trust

autonomy

initiative

industry

identity

intimacy

generativity

ego integrity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eriksons psychosocial stages

Trust versus mistrust

early infancy through the first year

if parents are sensitive and responsive to the childs needs, basic trust will develop

if parents neglect needs, the child may view the world as uncaring and learn to become mistrustful

Autonomy versus shame and doubt

late infancy (1 to 3 years)

battle of wills between parents wishes and childs desires to do as he or she pleases

if parents encourage the child to explore, a sense of independence develops

if parents disapprove or punish the childs explorations, he or she may develop a feeling that independence is bad and feel shame and doubt

Initiative versus guilt

early childhood (3 to 5 years)

child develops a number of social skills that are expected to be used to meet challenges

if parents encourage initiative, the child will develop the ability to plan and initiate new things

if parents discourage initiative, the child may feel guilty or uncomfortable or may feel unable to plan the future

Industry versus inferiority

middle and late childhood (5 to 12 years)

child needs to direct energy into working and completing tasks

develops a feeling of industry

if child has difficulty applying and completing work, he or she may develop a feeling of inferiority and incompetence

Identity versus role confusion

adolescence

if child is successful making the change to adolescence, he or she will develop a sense of confidence and a positive identity

if child is unsuccessful, he or she will experience role confusion

results in having low self-esteem and becoming socially withdrawn

 

14

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CONTD)

Banduras social cognitive theory

Emphasizes the importance of learning through observation, imitation, and self-reward

Not necessary to perform any observable behaviors or receive any external rewards to learn new social skills because many behaviors are self-motivated

Vulnerability

Resiliency

Gender identity

Gender roles

Social role theory

Cognitive developmental theory

Gender schemas

Evolutionary theory

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Banduras social cognitive theory

Emphasizes the importance of learning through observation, imitation, and self-reward

Not necessary to perform any observable behaviors or receive any external rewards to learn new social skills because many behaviors are self-motivated

Vulnerability

refers to psychological or environmental difficulties that make children more at risk for developing later personality, behavioral, or social problems

Resiliency

refers to various personality, family, or environmental factors that compensate for increased life stresses so that expected problems dont develop

Gender identity

refers to the individuals subjective experience and feelings of being a female or male

Gender roles

traditional or stereotypical behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits that parents, peers, and society expect us to have because were male or female

Social role theory

emphasizes the influence of social and cognitive processes on how we interpret, organize, and use information

emphasizes social and cultural influences

states that gender differences between men and women arise from different divisions of labor

Cognitive developmental theory

children develop mental skills and interact with their environments, learn one set of rules for male behaviors and another set for female

Gender schemas

sets of information and rules organized around how either a male or a female should think and behave

Evolutionary theory

emphasizes genetic and biological forces

current gender differences are a continuation of the behaviors that evolved from early men and women

adapted these different behaviors in their attempts to survive the problems of their time

15


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Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

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550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

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Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

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Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

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Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

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Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

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