Economy and Society Transitioning






Research Proposal





Assessing the Water-Energy-Food Nexus of an Economy and Society Transitioning Towards a Low Carbon Footprint: The Case of eMalahleni in Mpumalanga















Table of Contents



1.1 Introduction. 3

1.2 Problem Statement 5

1.3 Rationale. 6

1.3 Aim.. 6

1.3.1        Research Objectives. 6

1.4 Research Hypothesis. 6

1.5 Definition of Terms. 7

1.6 Study Area. 8



Theoretical Framework. 14

Overall comments on literature. 15



Conceptual Framework. 16

Research Methods. 17

Primary Data. 18

Secondary Data. 18

Works Examination. 18

Questionnaires. 19

Interviews. 19

Observation. 19




Project Time Plan. 22




There is an increasing threat of climate change due to the rapid growth in several economies in Africa. Several narratives developed, such as the dominant narrative on the development plans founded around critical sectors with strong interrelation with the climate variability. Using analysis and programmed interviews, this research will examine how to move from the effects of water-energy-food (WEF) nexus and transitioning towards a low carbon footprint economy. The WEF Nexus is addressed through a case study conducted in Lynnville in Mpumalanga Province of South Africa, mainly focusing on how to progress towards a low carbon economy. This research will find out whether water is the driving factor for all other sectors such as energy and food since lack of water means no agricultural activities or energy production. Despite the set of policies in the eMalahleni area, there is still a challenge in managing such anexus with success. The approach proposed by Nelson et al.Is followed in this study. All stakeholder   will also be considered and adopted in this study. Thisvstudyvhypothesuses that the climate action and WEF nexus policy present a critical part of the future if we are to save the environment from greenhouse effects. Therefore, progress is needed to address the water-food-energy nexus and allowing self to be influenced by these forces.


Key terms: Water-Energy-Food Nexus; Transition; Low-carbon Footprint; Climate Change; Economy; Community








1.1 Introduction

There is an increasing need to address complex resource schemes such as energy, water, and food (WEF) nexus globallythe  .How policies are made in regulating terms and conditions in which unique modern systems are established is linked to social solidity, economic luxury, and the effective use of natural resources such as food, water, and energy. Water is the principal driver for food and energy, when its access is limited, food security thegeneration of energy which is required to run other industries. These interdependencies create a complex bond between these WEF variables.

The WEF concept emerged during 2007 and 2008 when a food and energy crisis gained popularity in 2011. The use of the WEF nexus impression has hastily grown in policy settings and scholarly literature. In this case, the WEF nexus is understood as a system-based perspective where these concepts are independent of each other but interconnected. Through careful thought of how sustenance, water, and energy systems interact and operate, the nexus aimed at maximizing the mutual benefits harvested from this interaction and minimize trade-offs, internalize environmental and social impacts of these nexus in a wide range of concepts(Salam et al., 2017). These aim to strengthen cross-sectoral amalgamation and rally outcomes that will augment water, food, and energy security.

Initially, the WEF nexus was only focused onthe classification of linkages between the human reservesystems. However, additional study of the nexus exhibited a growing need to integrate economic, ecological, and political magnitudes. To attain workable results, the WEF nexus methods need to evaluate specific impacts of the nexus on human lives and the influence towards resource ascendancy, mainly at the communal level(Schmidt, 2019).The nexus analysis is mostly steeredat national or regional levels due to the national policy or data availability and the set policies and standards. However, a balance between bottom-up and top-down approaches is required to discourse various scales of contacts. Although there has been a rapid growth in the complexity ofconceptualization of the WEF nexus and the use of different drivers, thereis aless rapid growth in the use of analytical approaches in accessing and analyzing WEF nexus.

This research reviews the present WEF nexus tactics, which will improve the methods and tools that will align the nexus thoughtfully and discourse the density of multi-sectoral sourcecommunications. The ‘nexus thinking’ emphasizes the inherent link between water, energy, and food reserve systems and aims to overcomea single-sector approach to reserveascendancy. The WEF nexus can be applied in multi-sectors as anabstract framework or an analytical tool. Whendelivered as asystematic tool, the nexus examinationsteadily uses qualitative and quantitative methods to understand the interactions between food, water, and energy systems. When applied as a conceptual framework, it leverages in understanding the nexus linkages that promote coherency in the policy-making process to enhance sustainability. The nexus concept can be used as a tool for solving problems and framing sectoral collaborations.


1.2 Problem Statement

Mpumalanga province in South Africa is the primary source of coal supply averaging sixty percent of the total coal mined in the country(Maya et al., 2015).The province also contains good soils which support agricultural activities.The large fertile soils make Mpumalanga the chief producer and trader of food in South Africa. However, coal mines have concentrated the soils with heavy metals leading to soil quality degradation in the past years, and the increasing concentration of toxic chemicals in the atmosphere also challenges agricultural activities(Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy, 2012).Mpumalanga has twelve power stations and forty-five coal mines which in total produce two hundred and twenty million tons of coal equals to ninety percent of total coal mined in South Africa(Baillie 2015).EMalahleni is the main supplier of coal to the related industries in the neighboring regions. There is an immense growth of population in eMalahleni most of which are immigrants due to the increasing need for workers in coal mines.

The basic amenities such as water, food, and energy are increasingly in demand. The coal mines in the province are increasing the rate of air pollution and water pollution.The coal miners have failed to respect the customary practices of the people in eMalahleni. The high concentration of metals in the atmosphere has greatly affected the health of children in the neighboring schools to the mines.There is also a constant power outage in the province caused by the collapse of power supply lines.Mpumalanga has the country’s most rivers which provide water for general use in the country. However, the ever-increasing pollution caused by mines is leading to degradation of water quality threatening the biodiversity of lentic communities and lives of people using river water for domestic purposes(McCarthy and Humphries, 2013). There is a growing difficulty for the province to develop laws that govern air and water pollution since it has the second-largest population in the region. The increasing populations’ health is also at stake due to air pollution caused by the mines. This research, therefore,focuses on how to reduce the carbon footprint in the country by the implementation of water-food-energy nexus.


1.3 Rationale

This research, therefore,will seek toidentify environmental effects caused by the coal mines in eMalahleni and how the environment can be saved from the increasing developments and deposits of hazardous components in the soil and in the air. The research focuses oneMalahleni since it is currently experiencing water, energy, and food shortages due to mines and impacts of climate change. The other reason for conducting this research is due to limited literature evidence on water-energy-food nexus and how planners will use them as a single unit in solving the currently experienced problem in eMalahleni.

There is also little research done to assess water, energy and food nexus in the economy and society. This study will help the researcher and other stakeholders in creating ways through which the depleted mines in eMalahleni can be reclaimed to boost agriculture in the region. The regaining of these areas’ productivity will help Mpumalanga Province curb its increasing food insecurity.The study will therefore, help in solving the current need for water in eMalahleni and to reduce the currently increasing toxic gases in the air from the mines.

1.3 Aim

This study aims to assess the WEF nexus of an economy and the societal transition towards a low carbon footprint.

1.3.1        Research Objectives





1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the linkages between the water-food-energy nexus in Lynnville.




1.6 Study Area

EMalahleni was previously known as Witbank meaning white ridge. Witbank was renamed in 2006 by the government of Mpumalanga in collaboration with the Municipality of eMalahleni which means a place of coal.This city has grown due to the industrial revolution of the mining activities in the coal mines. Initially, Witbank was a small settlement. The city’s growth is as a result of coal mining in the area and other activities such as power generation and the growing metal industry attracting so many immigrants from different parts of the country. Due to its rapid growth, various businesses have sprouted in the town and other social facilities. This made the town to be less dependent on Gauteng for goods and services.

However, the rapid growth in the eMalahleni area has outnumbered their capacity to sustain. The city is also facing shortages in food and water services due to land pollution caused by the coal mines.

EMalahleni Local Municipality is located in Nkangala District in Mpumalanga Province. This District Municipality is situatedon the north-western side of the domain. It is the smallest in Mpumalanga province in terms of landmass but the second largest population. It contains most of the rivers which are the main providers of water to most parts of South Africa. EMalahleni contains the highest coal deposits in South Africa and provides coal to other related industries outside the city. The map below shows the location of eMalahleni.


Figure 1: Locality Map of eMalahleni






Accomplishing water, energy, and food security have been the major challenge facing the African continent. Investigation shows that more than one billion persons worldwide face water, food, and energy shortage(Tempelhoff, 2018). In the world as a whole, access to energy in Sub-Saharan Africa is half of the whole population, and one-third access clean food. About six hundred million people live without accessing electricity (Aritua, 2019). Due to the expected rapid increase in Sub-Saharan Africa’s population, there is an estimated food crisis by 2050.

The analysis of Sub-Saharan Africa in 2010 indicated that all the East African republics were unable to change their worldwide hunger index. By 2017, it was reported that about ten million people in East Africa were experiencing an acute food crisis. Uganda is a country that shares the highest rate of food insecurity in East Africa, and its primary food shortage is linked with the limited water available in the country (Ayuk et al., 2021). This implies that water, food, and energy are interconnected factors that are inseparable. It is suggested that Uganda embrace other forms of harvesting water to eliminate its existing water shortage.

Sub-Saharan Africa is said to have the worlds’ most significant water problem, especially for those living in rural areas. Nigeria is ranked among the countries where water shortage is a considerable blow (Marais etal., 2016). Out of the entire seven hundred and eighty million people in the world living without water, more than forty percent are said to come from Sub-Saharan Africa.

The ongoing global pandemic has increased the need for equality in food, water, and energy globally. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa experiencing global challenges linked with these forces were significantly impacted by the pandemic. Treating the infected people in these countries was such a big challenge due to the lack of enough power to counter the increasing demand (Swatuk& Cash, 2017). Most people had no access to electricity which would enable them to store food for future use. this contributed to a food shortage in these struggling countries, leading to an increase indeath rate. The lack of enough water also contributed to increased deaths for sanitation in African countries. For instance, there was a witnessed rapid spread of the virus in South Africa and massive deaths caused by poor sanitation.

Empirical studies have been conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa in relation to WEF nexus. There is an increased water shortage in SADC regions, including countries such as Swaziland, Congo, and Tanzania. Due to unreliable surface water, groundwater is increased to support the residents’ everyday activities in Tanzania forcing them to walk for long distances in search for water (Gupta, 2017). The groundwater obtained through various means is only suitable for drinking and not farming due to its scarcity. Other water sources are found to contain harmful minerals such as arsenic. These countries, however, have low water management practices, which makes water hardly available in most parts of these countries. Availability of water in these places also poses a threat to the survival of agricultural foods. Food security is also greatly influenced by the low rainfall received in these countries throughout the year.

The land is the primary factor required to support agriculture. Over sixty percent of the SADC population largely depends on agriculture. Agriculture contributes to seventeen percent of GDP. However, there is an increasing need for minerals in these countries, threatening the available land for agriculture. Therefore, these countries are at stake in determining which way to go, whether to concentrate on agriculture or mining. This conflicting factor leads to a considerable vast of it being mined unintentionally without considering agriculture. These countries have therefore formed a body that governs both agriculture and mining. However, the increasing mines threaten agricultural survival due to most of the land being uneven for agriculture. Limited water caused by the destruction of the mines’ water table also contributes to the increasing crisis in the SADC region.

The main incentive of evaluating the water-food-energy nexus in Mpumalanga is the continuingpressure between coal mining and agriculture since both are competing for the same land. The quality and quantity of water available for use are also threatened by the mining activities in the mines(Tempelhoff, 2018).The continued degradation of the available water quality in this region and the ever-decreasing water quantity threatensthe lives of the people living in Emalahleni. Necessary measures need to be taken in place to curb the gap and enable people access clean water for use(Swatuk& Cash, 2017). This leads to a consequent huge competition for water from the Emalahleniregion and other factors requiring water input such as sanitation especially during the current time when Covid-19 rules require maximum sanitation. Increased lack of water leads to a position of human health and other environmental hazards. There is a prediction that eMalahleni will experience severe water shortages by 2025 (Commission et al., 2015). There will be increased temperatures in the region, increasing evaporation rates, and decreasing the soil moisture content and the available water for runoffs.

The WEF nexus configuration is gaining particular interest in research in the recent past, influenced by the finite nature of these resources and the cumulative demand for each of them caused by the challenging, increasing population and the change in food patterns for different people. South Africa is ranked the thirtieth most dry country globally (Lawford et al., 2020). This implies that there is an ever-increasing need for water to satisfy the ever-increasing population in the country. The ongoing climate change is expected to challenge the availability of water and land for agricultural processes. For instance, droughts experienced in 2015 led most parts of the country to be declared disastrous, such as Limpopo, North-West, Mpumalanga, and KwaZulu-Natal. The lack experienced in 2018 led to most water reservoirs’ decrease in quantity which had not been experienced in Cape Town for a very long time(Swatuk& Cash, 2017). The Principles of International Water Law is relevant in considering water use, especially in South Africa, which shares its four aim rivers with other neighboring countries.

The South African Development Community caters to the countries which are in the southern part of Africa. South Africa, Zimbabwe, Democratic Republic of Congo and Mozambique are some of the countries which contains mines.These mines contribute to why most of the land is exposed and unhealthy for agriculture irrespective of whether the land has great potential for agriculture(Hülsmann and Ardakanian, 2018). Competition for land in SADC member states such as South Africa is increasing due to the need for practicing agriculture and the coal mining taking place. South Africa hasmost of the transboundary river basins and most of them are situated in eMalahleni.

The increasing number of mines in the southern part of Africa has also led to decreased energy sources. This is because most of these energy sources depend on water to provide electricity. The mines have also exposed most of the land, making the available energy unable to reach people. On the other hand, the increasing population demands more energy than they cannot provide(Yang et al., 2019). Increasing industrialization and urbanization are as well threatening the power available in eMalahleni. Load shedding is leading to energy insecurity in the cities and towns. These high losses experiences challenge the energy available to reach every part of the country.

Mpumalanga is mainly characterized by disparities in income level, just like any other part of South Africa. There is lowaccess to clean water and proper sanitation. However, most households have access to clean water for use, but they have less access to adequate sanitation. The amount of clean water available for use in this area has consequently decreased over the past years due to an increase in the mineral exploration taking place in the regionsixteen percent of homes in Mpumalanga Province knowledge water contaminationfrom these mines. Poor municipal management practices are also among the main contributorstopoor sanitation in the province. eMalahleni city is therefore experiencing high population increasing caused by the immigrants who come to work there. A lot of water from the river is channeled to these mines to provide water and the wastes are released back to the rivers.

While policymakers in South Africa are working towards attaining a low carbon economy, the piecemeal approach towards legislation approach lays a significant challenge to the industries, which leads to an increasing misalignment between different instruments to be used, and this change may lead to legal uncertainties in the country. These new policies may end up slowing down the process of transition. However, a better approach can ensure a smooth transition to a low carbon economy in the country. This move will be possible when lawmakers in South Africa pay a close look at how other countries are dealing with climate change and WEF nexus to help in their solution guide.

The planet has lost almost fifty percent of its biodiversity since 1980, with a third of the public land being degraded (World Wide Fund for Nature, 2016). Water sources are exploited each day in more than thirty countries. The rising demand for various natural resources continues to broaden due to the increasing population. There is an expected global demand for food, energy, and water in the coming years, primarily to developing countries. WEF nexus has emerged as a way to curb the ever-increasing demand for these amenities. Mutual understanding and sustainable management of these resources are paramount in providing these natural ecosystem services (Spiegelberg et al., 2015). The WEF nexus’s main aims are investing in sustainable network services, fashioning more with less, and hastening and mixing the deprived.

The universal position quo is that special planning, political development, and resources occur in “silos,” which continuously conflict with the WEF nexus policies. The nexus method has gained division in the twenty-first century due to the knowledge and information gap and the understanding of WEF nexus inter-connections. It requires that spatial planning and resources be integrated to consider the dependencies, trade-offs, and linkages. The word nexus is used to mean connect, which in this study points to the interconnection between water, energy, and food with their effects on the economy and social aspects.

Theoretical Framework

The water evaluation and planning model is an approachsteeredtowards integrated water and resources planning valuations(Van Hulst, 2012). This theory estimates that the demand for water, runoff, supply, crop requirements, storage, flows and pollution generation, discharge, treatment, instream water quality, and other policy scenarios. This theory’s advantage is that it is a scalable resource planning method and compares water demand and their supply. This theory also focuses on other water resources such as energy, climate, and biomass.

The global dialogue policy model is also the other theoretical framework used about the water-food-energy nexus. The theory was developed by the International Water Management Institute in response to the increasing global water challenge. It can be used to communicate policy development and scenario scrutiny to explore trade-offs and the imminent demands for aquatic practice (Wybergh, 1922). This theory aims to increase awareness for the people concerning the water resources and the different interactions concerning water scarcity, environmental needs, and food security. This theory is concerned with the increasing population and how people are changing their diets over time, andprovides an advantage in terms of social aspects and the economy. These factors contribute to the national decision-making process of different countries and the water-energy-food management.







Conceptual Framework will be used in the study


Source: Stephan et al. (2018)

Overall comments on literature

The aim of conducting research concerning the WEF nexus is the strong relation between these nexuses and their impact on water which leads to a consequent degradation of soil for agriculture.  Coal mining degrades the soil in eMalahleni due to the deposition of heavy metals to the soil which discourages agricultural processes. The chemical gases released to the atmosphere causes diseases especially breathing problems to the people who live in these parts of the city. Climate change has negatively affected agriculture due to the change in seasons. climate change also has affected the levels of waters in these rivers. There is a major challenge of adopting a greener economy since least people understand the WEF nexus and they are also less concerned with it. The move towards greener economy will offer not only job opportunities to the people living in these regions but benefits for the environment.







Conceptual Framework











The conceptual framework above specifies the water-energy-food nexus across the interconnection between the natural forces and human beings. It designates the human-nature connections within theattachment of human and natural system. It also indicates the human-nature connectionsamid adjacent coupled schemes. Each of the interjoined factors have two primary subsystems which include human and nature. These forces have a wide range of drivers which include population increase, household, economy, technological activities, and power relations. The WEF nexus is both directly and indirectly connected to all sustainable development goals. The figure does not include complexity issues which happen over time.

WEF nexus is explained in many different theories, such as the World Economic Forum, which frames the WEF nexus as the universal risk of financial and social development. There is a theory in the call for integrating life dynamics into the WEF nexus to enhance food, energy, and water security at a local level. However, very few of these concepts have tried to question the translation of the theoretical concepts into their practical aspect. These concepts are therefore posing a global contest in terms of their application. There is a call for case study valuation focusing on place-based signs of the WEF nexus connections supporting the decision-making process(Endo et al., 2015). The ever-increasing battle between nature and human is indicated in the figure above where the interconnection between the human activities and the natural forces are inter-twined. The sustainable development goals link the human activities with the natural forces.

In support of the above information, the researcher has undertaken evidence-based research on the WEF nexus in Mpumalanga Province in South Africa. The approach focuses on the relationship between human interaction with nature and its effect on the environment.


Research Methods

This sectionoutlines the research methods that will be employed and the methodology that will be implemented in this study. This chapter will also focus on the research design to use (Kara, 2020).  To analyze the role of water, food, and energy nexus in the Emalahleni area in Mpumalanga Province, the approach selected should suit a small area region. Therefore, the chosen system will to focus on the practicability of the method in the area and collecting this data suitable for moving towards a low carbon footprint.

The first approach in this research will be the qualitative linking of WEF subsystems. Mapping the systematic interrelation between the WEF nexus will help in understanding the complex interlinkages between them. This mapping of relations will also show how WEF nexus are interrelated to each other(Chang et al., 2016). This mapping will be based on qualitative information and other non-measurable sources such as the journals, reports and government reports.

The second step will be to quantify the WEF nexus links. Quantitative collection of information from the field first-hand follows the qualitative analysis of data. This is possible through collecting this information from different sources. These vital links will then be identified and the leveraged results provided.

The effectiveness of the questionnairesin meeting the research objectives will be highly prioritized.This research will make use of both qualitative and quantitative data to collect data from the eMalahleni area. The researcher will employ both primary and secondary data as the source of information concerning the water-food-energy nexus in the eMalahleni region in Mpumalanga Province. The geographical information system will be used to provide the necessary map for eMalahleni, which will provide the researcher with the required visual aid of the area and the number of coal mines in the region to understand better the magnitude of the effects they have on the environment and the people surrounding them. Data collected will then be keyed into Statistical Package for Social Sciences to analyze it. These methods are more preferred since they vividly provide the necessary information.


Primary Data

Primary data is any first-hand material collected by the researcher directly from the target audience(Kara, 2013).This information includes those collected from the questionnaires, interviews, and observation. All these techniques provide adequate information about the selected topic of research.

Secondary Data

Secondary data sources are the sources through which previously conducted studies are referenced to support the current research. These sources are already prewritten, and the researcher uses them to find other relevant information to help their current assignment. These secondary sources include journals, government records, newspapers, books, websites, personal sources, and blogs. These sources will be used as they are easy to give information due to electronic media, making this information very accessible. The documentation done by the eMalahleni municipality will also help in conducting this research. Any archive information related to the WEF nexus will be considered in this research. The information collected from these sources will help support the primary data collected and make relevant judgments.

Works Examination

The researcher will employ a literature review to collect the necessary secondary data to support their current study. A critical review of the previously conducted research will be conducted in this step. Therefore, the researcher will use government websites to collect the required secondary data about the water-food-energy nexus. Any books with relevant information will also be used in this research.


The researcher will use questionnaires to collect information from the Emalahleni area in Mpumalanga Province. The questionnaires will contain a set of questions which will be guided by research objectives.Questionnaires will have open-ended questions and close-ended questions to ensure adequate data collection for qualitative and quantitative data. These questionnaires will be distributed to one hundred and fifty participants who will comprise the government department dealing with WEF nexus in eMalahleni, the non-governmental organizations in the city,municipality, labor unions and businesses. This method will be used since the information provided can be gauged of their accuracy and are more detailed. However, the disadvantage of using questionnaires is that they might take so much time to collect the information, mostly when the research is conducted in different localities. Questionnaires might also not be returned in the required time.


The research will use interviews in this research to collect information. Interviews to be employed will be semi-structured interviews where the researcher will get a chance to interact with the respondents directly and gauge the accuracy of the information given. This will enable the researcher to check the mining process’s loopholes and how they affect each party in Emalahleni in Mpumalanga Province in South Africa. These interviews are chosen since there is room for extension of the questions, especially when more clarity is needed. However, the limitationis not always appropriate since they might be unwilling to respond to the questions or give biased information.


The researcher will visit the coal mines in the eMalahleni area to glimpsehow the mining processes are conducted and their effect on the arable land for farming and water contamination in the rivers. This information will help the researcher gauge the accuracy of the responses to be provided in the questionnaires. Personal observation will also provide any other intervening factor influenced by the coal mining other than water, food, and energy such as job losses and health. However, the comment might be biased when the climatic changes occur during the advent of visiting the study site.



Data analysis is the method of developing answers to the respondents’ questions by examining and interpreting the information(DeRenzoet al., 2020). This step is paramount in understanding relevant results from the survey conducted and the results presented most suitably.

The data collected through the questionnaireswill be analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, preferably version twenty-six. Questionnaires will be checked for correctness on how they were filled, and any irrelevant information supplied will be eliminated.The questionnaires’ collected and limited data will be categorized concerning the research objectives and their rating according to the Likert scale provided for various questions. The grouped information will be coded to the SPSS software in numerical form since it is statistically oriented, which deals with fundamental values. The coded data will then be screened to check any disparities which could have been missed from the standard screen has done previously. The data already fed to the software will be analyzed concerning the research questions, and the findings of each objective noted. The researcher will also test the relationship between different variables and how they influence the selected topic to clarify the research topic.

The analyzed information will be presented in pie charts, graphs, pictures,tables, GIS maps, and line graphs, depending on their completeness of representing various information(DeRenzoet al., 2020). The analysis report will be written by the researcher in which the results found will be backed by the empirical data collected from various sources. The researcher will also ensure that the relation between the qualitative and quantitative data will be written in the analysis part, indicating their interaction.These results will be organized in a logical order where the accuracy of the information provided will be gauged. The final report from the data analysis will be used to make decisions about the water-energy-food nexus in eMalahleni in Mpumalanga Province. These results will influence how the government makes policies that will guide how the miners protect the city towards a low carbon to enable continued support for agriculture.





The following ethicalconsiderations will guide this research. The researcher will seek permission from the University before the actual data collection process. This is done to enable the researcherto collect the necessary information. The university will also indicate the precautions to be employed in the research, which might be unknown to the researcher. Registration for the permission to perform data collection will also be used so that the university is aware of the questions presented to the respondents and their effects on participants. The research participants will not be subjected to any form of harm while conducting the research. All the necessary information about the study will also be submitted to the authorities.

These respondents will be informed of the person conducting the research and the purpose of conducting such a study. They will be allowed to decide whether to participate in the research or not. The respondents will be given additional information in case they appear distressed during the data collection process. The respondents will fill and sign a consent form to protect their information, and are also allowed to voluntarily quit the data collection process in case there is coercionin the process. The respondents will be protected from any form of harm by the researcher, either physical or mental. The respondents’ confidentiality will be essential in the research, whereby they will not be allowed to indicate any of their personal information in the questionnaires or those conducting interviews. This is aimed at ensuring that the respondents have the freedom to give any information, however harmful it may be.The researcher will stick to only relevant information in the research, and any information that is not inline with the study will be avoided.







Phases     Year 2021    


            Year 2022  


months 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Research Proposal Submission  


Literature review and Theoretical Framework      


Data collection                                                
Data Analysis                                                
Thesis Writing                                                
Submission of Thesis                                                

Project Time Plan









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Wybergh, W. J. (1922). The coal resources of the Union of South Africa…: The coal fields of Wilbank, springs, Heidelberg, and the Orange Free State. 1922.


Yang, T., Telesetsky, A., Harmon-Walker, L., & Percival, R. V. (2019). Comparative and global environmental law and policy. Aspen Publishers.






























Great attempt, however we are going back to the question of scale which could’ve informed us with regards to the elements of this conceptual frame work. As it is… It’s too general.Out of interest sake, what do the other short two arrows represent seeing the major one is intercoupling.






Yes ? but the study has to be tied to a small economic or so (localized) SETTING













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