Emerging Threats and Counter Measures

defense in Depth for

Defense in Depth for Protecting National Infrastructure
I. Annotation of the article by Alcaraz and Zeadally (2015)
II. Annotation of the article by Amoroso (2012)
III. Annotation of the article by Ani, He, & Tiwari (2017)
IV. Annotation of the article by Galinec, Monik, & Guberina (2017)
V. Annotation of the article by Gztepe, Klc,& Kayaalp (2014)
VI. Annotation of the article by Maglaras et al. (2018).
VII. Annotation of the article by . (2016)

Defense in Depth for Protecting National Infrastructure
Alcaraz, C., & Zeadally, S. (2015). Critical infrastructure protection: Requirements and challenges for the 21st century. International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, 8, 53-66
Critical national infrastructures are not only important to the proper functioning of any society through their level of performance and reliability but present immense cybersecurity challenges for the government of several nations, especially those that are an integral part of the cyberspace. It is this imperative that informed the investigation by Alcaraz and Zeadally (2015), and the findings on the vulnerabilities and risks inherent in critical infrastructures were published in this article. Also, these scholars asserted that the measures for reducing or eliminating the adverse impacts of these threats could also be used to address some of the challenges that occur in specific areas of the national infrastructure. As an article that analyzed some of the security issues that are associated with the use of new technologies for the management of critical infrastructure, its inclusion in the list of reference materials would provide the background information on the areas in the infrastructures that need the deployment of defense in depth.

Amoroso, E. (2012). Cyber-attacks: protecting national infrastructure. Elsevier.
In this chapter of the book by Amoroso (2012), the purpose of using defense in depth to provide additional layers of protection for the information security assets through the enforcement of the security policy in all access points was highlighted. Also, the expertise of the author on the elements of defense in depth was demonstrated by discussions on the schema for the security model, factors that influence its effectiveness, layered authentication, and e-mail virus and spam protection among other essential concepts. However, an additional rationale for the inclusion of this chapter in the list of sources that would be used to support the ideas and concepts that would be discussed in the proposed paper is the detailed explanation on layered access controls and layered encryption. Therefore, the information from this book would strengthen the quality of the discussions on the elements of defense in depth that are necessary for preventing cyber-attacks on national infrastructure that would be prevented in the proposed research paper.

Ani, U. P. D., He, H., & Tiwari, A. (2017). Review of cybersecurity issues in industrial critical infrastructure: Manufacturing in perspective. Journal of Cyber Security Technology, 1(1), 32-74.
The industrial sector of the economy of any nation consist of manufacturing systems that rely on the complex processes that are used by national infrastructures but subject to the same level of threats and vulnerabilities. In this article, Ani, He, and Tiwari (2017) provide some of the effective cybersecurity measures that can be used for increasing the resilience of industrial control systems against these threats. Also, the recommendations by the scholars on the approaches for securing industrial control systems from cyber-attacks can be adapted to the models that are used for implementing defense in depth on the national infrastructure of any nation. Therefore, these aspects of the information that are contained in the article are responsible for its inclusion as one of the reference sources. Finally, the content and positions that are assumed in the proposed research project, especially those that are related to the resolution of the dynamics of the issues that could limit the potential of national infrastructures to support activities in the society.
Galinec, D., Monik, D., & Guberina, B. (2017). Cybersecurity and cyber defence: National level strategic approach. Journal for Control, Measurement, Electronics, Computing and Communications, 58(3), 273-286.

In this article, the authors used the case study approach to illustrate the differences and similarities between cybersecurity and information security and how understanding is important to the development of national strategic frameworks for securing infrastructures. Also, the use of Croatia’s National Cybersecurity Strategy provides the empirical evidence of the issues and challenges that could arise from the implementation of defense in depth countermeasures against the threats to national infrastructures. However, the detailed examination of the tools and concepts that are related to the large-scale deployment of defense in depth protocols is one of the justifications for the selection of this article among the ones that are required for the proposed research paper. Finally, the need to from the experiences of national cybersecurity experts in the paper as the practical evidence for the recommended solutions also informed the decision to include the article among other scholarly sources.

Gztepe, K., Klc, R., & Kayaalp, A. (2014). Cyber Defense In Depth: Designing Cyber Security Agency Organization For Turkey. Journal of Naval Science and Engineering, 10(1), 1-24.
Gztepe and his colleagues examined the processes for designing an effective and efficient cybersecurity agency that would utilize defense in depth approaches for securing its national infrastructures. The case study on Turkey’s approach for accomplishing this goal was one of the major strengths of the contents of this paper, especially when consideration is given to the recommendations that were provided by the scholars. In this regard, the researchers suggested the use of an eight layered defense in depth architecture, which is the most relevant to the homeland security needs of the European nation that include effective real-time information exchange between government agencies and organizations. Aside from the significance of the findings of this case study on the design and deployment of defense in depth systems, the description of the various organizational and environmental factors that would ensure success is highly useful for maintaining the quality of the proposed research paper on the methods for mitigating and eliminating the cybersecurity threats against national infrastructures.

Maglaras, L. A., Kim, K. H., Janicke, H., Ferrag, M. A., Rallis, S., Fragkou, P., … & Cruz, T. J. (2018). Cyber security of critical infrastructures. ICT Express, 4(1), 42-45.
are consist of complex and distributed units that increase their susceptibility to cyber-attacks and threats including insider ones, mainly when the imperatives for their protection are driven by efficiency, timely intrusion detection, and low cost. It is the premise that informed the research activities that were conducted by Maglaras and colleagues on the use of modern supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems in national infrastructures such as power grids. Also, the findings and recommendations that were presented in this article are based on the nature of the threat to SCADA that is provided by the Internet of Things (IoT), which is characterized by STUXNET worm attacks. Therefore, the need to provide a detailed explanation of all the dimensions of the cybersecurity threats to national infrastructures that defense in depth can prevent informed the decision to include this article as one of its seven reference materials. Finally, the recommendations of the scholars on the directions for future research on the topic are equally valuable to the project.
Mell, P., Shook, J., & Harang, R. (2016, December). Measuring and Improving the Effectiveness of . In Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Industrial Control System Security Workshop (pp. 15-22). ACM
In this article, the researchers posited that defense in depth is an effective countermeasure against emerging threats on national infrastructure because of its potential to provide several layers of protection against different forms of attacks. The scholars also claimed that the posture of the architecture of the defense in depth system is an integral factor to the attainment of this security goal. They further asserted that their measurement of the depth and width of an attack type showed that the system vulnerabilities and weaknesses revealed that the defense postures should be based on various considerations. One of the rationales for including the content of this article in the list of references is the description of the greedy heuristics that can be used to secure different industrial control systems. Finally, the need to provide empirical evidence of the security models that would help in the efficient deployment of defense in depth also informed the decision to include this article in the list of references.





Alcaraz, C., & Zeadally, S. (2015). Critical infrastructure protection: Requirements and challenges for the 21st century. International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, 8, 53-66. Retrieved from https://www.nics.uma.es/sites/default/files/papers/alcaraz%3A2015%3ACRI.pdf
Amoroso, E. (2012). Cyber-attacks: protecting national infrastructure. Elsevier.
Ani, U. P. D., He, H., & Tiwari, A. (2017). Review of cybersecurity issues in industrial critical infrastructure: manufacturing in perspective. Journal of Cyber Security Technology, 1(1), 32-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/23742917.2016.1252211
Galinec, D., Monik, D., & Guberina, B. (2018). Cybersecurity and cyber defence: national level strategic approach. Automatika: asopis za automatiku, mjerenje, elektroniku, raunarstvo i komunikacije, 58(3), 273-286. https://doi.org/10.1080/00051144.2017.1407022
Gztepe, K., Klc, R., & Kayaalp, A. (2014). Cyber Defense In Depth: Designing Cyber Security Agency Organization For Turkey. Journal of Naval Science and Engineering, 10(1), 1-24. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/274733863_Cyber_Defense_In_Depth_Designing_Cyber_Security_Agency_Organization_For_Turkey
Maglaras, L. A., Kim, K. H., Janicke, H., Ferrag, M. A., Rallis, S., Fragkou, P., … & Cruz, T. J. (2018). Cyber security of critical infrastructures. ICT Express, 4(1), 42-45. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405959517303880
Mell, P., Shook, J., & Harang, R. (2016, December). Measuring and Improving the Effectiveness of Defense-in-Depth Postures. In Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Industrial Control System Security Workshop (pp. 15-22). ACM. doi>10.1145/3018981.3018986

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  +1 718 717 2861         [email protected]