Article: Entrepreneurial Perceptions and Intentions: The Role of Gender and Culture
Authors: Shinnar, Rachel S.; Giacomin, Olivier; and Janssen, Frank
Source: Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice
Date: May, 2012
Issue: Volume 36, Issue 3
The purpose of the study is to examine what effect culture and gender have upon shaping an individuals perceptions of the barriers to becoming and entrepreneur and also their intentions to become and entrepreneur. They do this based upon the framework of Hofstedes cultural dimensions and of gender role theory.
The study sample consists of 761 students from China (147), the United States (285), and Belgium (329). They used a questionnaire developed by in 2005 along with additional demographic questions. The questionnaires received a 100% response rate.
The sample of students is reliable because of the fact that they are solely studying intent to become and entrepreneur. Another strength would be that they do a very good job of clearly articulating their findings and steer clear of jargon for the most part.
A weakness in my eyes would be that they do include some possible explanations for hypotheses that were not supported, but I do not feel as though they include enough. Another weakness would be the use of a survey that was not designed for the use of the study at hand. Also, unequal distribution of the students among different characteristics could alter the findings. As with any study using students, the results may not transcend to the real world.
Summary of Key Results
PD (power distance)-degree to which power in organizations and institutions is expected to be unequally distributed.
IDV (individualism)-degree that individuals consider themselves autonomous
UA (uncertainty avoidance)-tolerance of uncertainty and ambiguity
MAS (masculinity)-traditional male values play an important role
In the outset, they expect Chinese students to be the most likely to have entrepreneurial intention because of the culture (lowest UA, Highest PD and MAS) in which they live. They also expect gender differences in entrepreneurial perceptions and intentions to be most influenced by PD and MAS, and therefore focus on those two dimensions.
Lack of Support Barrier-difficulty obtaining institutional support, family support, financing, relationships with suppliers, and/or customer base.
Fear of may potentially experience a greater fear of failure in starting a business because it constitutes pursuing a career discouraged for women (social norm). Women are also more risk-averse.
Lack of are less likely to think that they have the competency to start a successful business.
In order to analyze the data, they used PLS.
They hypothesize that all three of these barriers will be perceived as higher for women in China that the United States or Belgium. They also hypothesize the moderating effect of gender on the relationship of each the three barriers and entrepreneurial intentions will be larger China than in the other two countries.
As they hypothesized, the importance of the lack of support barrier is perceived as more important for females. Also, they found that their results also demonstrate that significant differences exist among the three countries in perceived importance of fear of failure and lack of competency barriers. However, their findings show that these two barriers perceived importance is much larger in the United States and Belgium than in China, which goes against their hypotheses.
Their results show that gender significantly moderates the relationship between perceived lack of support barrier and the entrepreneurial intention in all three countries. As expected, the moderating effect in China is larger than in the other two countries. Another finding was that gender has no moderating effect on the perceived fear of failure barrier/entrepreneurial intention relationship, failing to support their hypothesis. The last discussed finding is that gender has a significant, positive moderating effect on the lack of competency barrier/entrepreneurial intentions relationship for the U.S. subsample but not the other two, and no significant difference exists between China and the other two countries.
The study closes the gap in knowledge pertaining to the effect of cultural differences and the attitudes of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial intentions across genders.
The study also articulates how organizations can go about trying to develop more female entrepreneurs. It also shows different possibilities for future research.
The study does a clear job of articulating their purpose as well as their results. They also do a great job of articulating the limitations and implications of their research. Overall, I would say that this article is pretty well written. It is easy to read, and the authors make write it in a way that someone with little statistical background can understand the results.
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