Finding Competitive Advantage in Adversity
Finding Competitive
Advantage in Adversity
by Bhaskar Chakravorti
Included with this full-text Harvard Business Review article:
Idea in Briefthe core idea
1 Article Summary
2 Finding Competitive Advantage in Adversity
Difficult business
environments can offer rich
opportunities to
Reprint R1011H
This document is authorized for use only by Eric smith in Strategy at Strayer University, 2021.
Finding Competitive Advantage in Adversity
page 1
Idea in Brief
Crisis breeds opportunity, as the history
of business shows in spades. The most innovative entrepreneurs know how to turn
adversity into competitive advantage.
Capitalizing on adversity means finding
solutions in unlikely places: resources that
nobody seems to need, people and partners who dont fit the usual bill, elegantly
small answers to big dilemmas, and multidimensional platforms that transcend narrowly defined products.
The innovators who succeed as the new
normal takes root will be those who discover opportunity in the seemingly inopportune. Call them the new abnormals.
This document is authorized for use only by Eric smith in Strategy at Strayer University, 2021.
Finding Competitive
Advantage in Adversity
by Bhaskar Chakravorti
harvard business review november 2010 page 2
Difficult business environments can offer rich opportunities to
Jonathan Bush saw the opportunity to dramatically change how obstetrics practices function. He and his partner set out to build a medical business whose objective was to
incorporate both traditional and holistic care
options for mothers-to-be. Their aspirations
were grand, and demand for their services rapidly grew. But when reliance on slow-paying
insurers strapped the practice for cash, Bushs
vision got tangled in red tape.
In this failure, however, Bush envisioned
what would ultimately become his truly innovative business idea: a health care IT service
that spares its clients bureaucratic purgatory.
That service, athenahealth, is now a $189 million business.
Unlike many managers whose instincts are
to hunker down and play it safe during difficult times, entrepreneurs like Bush hear a call
to action in the oft-repeated advice of Machiavelli: Never waste the opportunities offered
by a good crisis. Even as the global economy
lurches toward a new normal, long-term crises
demand solutions in a variety of domains: geopolitics, the environment, health care, education, infrastructure, poverty and inequity juxtaposed with rapid growth, and broken business
models in multiple industries. In fact, instead
of the waves of expanding frontiers that defined the 20th century, constraint and restraint
may define the 21st.
For entrepreneurs with an eye for counterintuitive solutions, extreme problems and
seemingly insurmountable adversity can be a
crucible for creativity and business-model innovation. In studying hundreds of companies
that were created or reinvented in difficult
circumstances of many stripes, I have identified four key types of opportunities that innovative entrepreneurs see and seize upon in a
climate of extreme adversity. Those who face
todays tumultuous business environment can
learn from their example. First, lets learn
about the business climate of adversity.
Adversity as a Context for Business
Considerable evidence shows that periods of
extreme adversity foster innovation and the
This document is authorized for use only by Eric smith in Strategy at Strayer University, 2021.
Finding Competitive Advantage in Adversity
harvard business review november 2010 page 3
building of companies. For example, 18 of the
30 firms currently on the Dow Jones Industrial
Index were founded during economic downturns. The Kauffman Index of Entrepreneurial
Activity showed that the rate of new-business
creation was higher during the deepest part of
the 2009 recession than it had been in the 14
previous years, including the 19992000 technology boom.
Moments of crisis have historically served as
a powerful impetus for innovation, whether a
Manhattan Project, a moon shot, or industrytransforming green consciousness and its related initiatives. The entrepreneurs who thrive
in the face of adversity are a different breed
from those who flourish when resources are
unlimited, such as in Silicon Valley during the
What are the factors that distinguish entrepreneurs, corporate innovators, and investors
who successfully harness adversity to gain competitive advantage? My research has shown
that they tune in to the particular opportunities that characterize challenging times.
Unmet need and high entry barriers clearly
help to thin out the competitive field, but
thats also true for other entrepreneurial circumstances. I instead focus on the opportunities that are unique to situations of adversity
and to success in such times. I label the opportunities according to how adversity-attuned entrepreneurs act on themsomething they do
Opportunity 1: Match Unneeded
Resources to Unmet Needs
Adversity comes in many formsacute, cyclical, long-term, and systemic. It sometimes affects individuals or single firms; other times it
cuts across a wide swath of entities. However,
its pathology is consistent: Adversity constrains a key resource, which then depresses
demand, supply, or both. That gives rise to
unmet need and releases other resources that
become redundant. An opportunity emerges
for inventive entrepreneurs who can reroute
the redundant resources to fill the unmet
Consider, again, Jonathan Bush. He was
committed to having an impact in health care,
but it didnt happen right away. He drove an
ambulance as an EMT, took a break from college to become an army medic after the
launch of Operation Desert Storm, and eventually raised $1.6 million (with Todd Park, a
former colleague from Booz Allen Hamilton)
to buy a San Diego obstetrics practice in 1997.
The partners found that both government
and private health insurers would take weeks
or months to reimburse the practice, which
had little negotiating power, for patients medical claims. Indeed, physician practices everywhere were struggling with outmoded forms
of capturing and storing patient information
on paper and Dictaphones. The industry structure and interlocking behaviors across the
health care delivery chain had cemented a
highly inefficient status quo.
Despite growing revenues, Bush was running out of cash and had to shut down the
practice. But he and Park recognized an opportunity in a web-based service, called athenaNet, which they had developed to keep track of
patients and their constantly changing insurance information. In 1999, they switched from
being a clinical service to deploying athenaNet
as a billing tool that would help physicians
manage their revenue cycles more efficiently
and track changes in insurance rules and provisions. The new company, athenahealth, became a pioneer in revenue-cycle management
tools delivered over the internet. It subsequently used its web-based assets to deliver
electronic health-records capabilities to its clients and, thereby, also address their need for
information efficiency.
The company turned profitable after 2004,
when revenues were $36 million, and went on
to earn $189 million in 2009. Athenahealths
physician base has grown 30% per year since
2005, with a 97% retention rate. It has the largest, most comprehensive, continually updated
database on payer-reimbursement rulesthe
key drivers of claims payments and denialsin
the United Sates. It also has consistently
ranked number 1 or 2 in several key ambulatory and billing scheduling categories. Athenahealth stands alone in the field as the only
internet-based provider of such services and
was named among Fast Companys 50 most innovative businesses for 2010.
Athenahealth ingeniously repurposed a resource made redundant by adverse circumstances to meet a basic need that the adversity
had exposed. Its a phenomenon that other sectors have witnessed as well. For example, onceredundant polysilicon has been repurposed by
a host of solar energy entrepreneurs. And naBhaskar Chakravorti
([email protected])
is a partner at McKinsey & Company
and a distinguished scholar at MITs
Legatum Center for Development and
Entrepreneurship. He recently joined
the faculty of Harvard Business School.
This document is authorized for use only by Eric smith in Strategy at Strayer University, 2021.
Finding Competitive Advantage in Adversity
harvard business review november 2010 page 4
scent IT companies in India redeployed plentiful, underutilized, highly trained programmers
to respond to the Y2K crisis. Both of these experiences became foundations for the growth
of major industries.
Opportunity 2: Round Up Unusual
Adversity is also characterized by missing or
inadequate elements at critical points in the
business system. These may include key inputs, capital, technologies, or partners in the
supply, distribution, and marketing chains.
Entrepreneurs who can creatively identify unlikely, alternative candidates are able to get a
leg up. However, the art of aligning the incentives of an unorthodox coalition and maintaining equilibrium among the members is no
small challenge.
Some people, such as investment banker
Iqbal Quadir, manage to do it. He set out to
pursue an outrageous vision: bringing universal telephone service to his native Bangladesh,
which in 1993 had only one phone per 500
people. One of the worlds most resource- and
infrastructure-poor countries, Bangladesh also
had 80% of its population dispersed across
86,000 villages. Quadir was obviously facing
gaps in the supply, distribution, and marketing
chain sufficient to kill the best of business
plans. How could he possibly implement wireless technology in a cost-efficient way and then
market affordable service in this context?
Quadirs real inspiration came when he realized that success would require enlisting the
unlikeliest of allies. To benefit from economies
of scale, he sought GSM (global system for mobile) digital-wireless technology as the cheapest long-term solution, even though it would
be the most expensive at the outset. This took
him across the world to Telenor, the Norwegian telecommunications company that is a
global leader in GSM.
To scale up sufficiently, Quadir had to solve
two additional problems. On the demand side,
closing the marketing and distribution gaps
meant turning to another unlikely ally,
Grameen Bank, the microfinance pioneer that
had a deep network among rural women in
Bangladesh. Quadir saw an opportunity to repurpose the Grameen business model by encouraging the women to do business in telephones rather than cows and then use the
money they made to pay back their microloans
from the bank. On the supply side, Quadir had
no assurance of interconnection facilities,
which would be a barrier to Telenors attempt
to stitch together a nationwide network. To
overcome the obstacle, Quadir turned to a
third unusual suspect: Bangladesh Railway.
The dark fiber along its tracks could be activated to provide the interconnection.
Each player was motivated by the appeal of
participating in a new growth opportunity that
used existing capacity and technology. Without
the simultaneous involvement of the others,
however, each ally might have backed away. In
effect, the unusual suspects interlocking incentives had been exquisitely aligned. By orchestrating a counterintuitive coalition, Quadir has made his venture, Grameenphone, the
largest telephone provider in Bangladesh today. One in three Bangladeshis now has access
to a phone.
Other entrepreneurs have taken different
approaches to breaking from industry orthodoxy by seeking out unlikely partners. Take
Adversity: A Disruptive Ingredient for
Corporate Innovation
For established companies, adversity engenders urgency, focus, and an efficient harnessing of resources in the service of innovation and growth. Consider the examples
of Cadbury and P&G.
Cadbury in India
Cadbury found opportunity in its predicament as a purveyor of chocolate in the
hot climates of southern Asia, where the
product melts easily. A new innovation
platform was born: Cadbury Bytes and
Chocki, added to the familiar Eclairs.
Each product has melted chocolate in its
core but is not vulnerable to hot outdoor
temperatures. The innovations have
been very successful in India, and their
popularity is spreading globally.
Mr. Clean Car Wash
As the Great Recession of 2008 brought
new pressures on P&G, the company allied itself with an unusual list of suspects who had been displaced from their
employment and were looking for new
businesses to start up. This human resources opportunity coincided with several unmet needs in the market: consumers seeking affordable luxuries in a
tough economy, aging Baby Boomers
prone to outsourcing services, and communities that value water conservation.
The collective result: P&G franchised its
51-year-old Mr. Clean brand to individual
car wash entrepreneurs and launched a
national chain, Mr. Clean Car Wash. This
small entry into service innovation for
P&G could lead to other national franchises that leverage P&Gs vaunted
This document is authorized for use only by Eric smith in Strategy at Strayer University, 2021.
Finding Competitive Advantage in Adversity
harvard business review november 2010 page 5
R.P. Eddy, whose clients needed on-the-ground
research on hard-to-access markets, such as
Iraq. Eddy did not have the capability to send
analysts there, so instead he recruited a network of local in-country experts as open-source
analysts. The consulting firm, Ergo, was thus
born using a radically new model. Alternatively, others have turned to contests and
prizes to harness the skills of previously unknown allies to address incredibly tough situations of adversity. According to a recent McKinsey study, the total value of all prizes worth
$100,000 or more has grown 15-fold over the
past 35 years. Before 1991, 98% of these prizes
were for recognition; since then, 78% have
been awarded for problem solving.
Opportunity 3: Find Small Solutions
to Big Problems
The more severe the adversity, the harder it is
to change the status quo. Comprehensive solutions that require many changes can appear to
be dead on arrival, leaving only tiny cracks as
points of entry to break the mold. The message for the intrepid entrepreneur: Small innovations can be huge. First, they are potentially more affordable and can be produced
with less initial outlay. Second, they economize on features and complexity and may be
just good enough to fulfill an unmet need.
Third, their size can help minimize environmental effects or other negative externalities.
Finally, they may be easier to integrate into
the current model, with only minimal adjustments. In fact, four characteristics that, according to, define future
consumer priorities may be the tiny cracks to
look for: affordability, simplicity/convenience,
sustainability, and design informed by local
knowledge about product usage. Small solutions that fit within these tiny cracks represent
major opportunities.
A case in point is Cameron Powell, an obstetrician in San Antonio, Texas, who faced a common problem in his field: potential liability related to failures in communication between
the physician and the nursing staff at the expecting mothers bedside. The structural obstacle was that obstetricians are usually on the
movefrom the office, to the ER, to various
hospitalsmaking continuous bedside coverage cost-prohibitive.
When software engineer Trey Moore asked
Powell to wish for his fantasy smartphone application, Powell realized that being able to see
the babys heart tracing and the mothers contractions anytime, anywhere would be a huge
help to him and his staff. Powell and Moore
figured that avoiding even a single lawsuit,
with a median $2.5 million award, could make
the investment worthwhile to a health care
provider. Together they founded AirStrip Technologies, whose first product was a smartphone app called AirStrip OB. The app was
easy to install on devices that physicians were
already carrying, required very little behavioral
change from users, and would be offered to
hospitals on a ,
thereby minimizing their monetary commitment. In short, Powell had found a small solution to a very big problem.
AirStrip OB was celebrated by attendees at
the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference
in 2009, where only eight apps were chosen to
be presented. Since then, more than 100 hospitals have adopted it. Among a highly select
handful of inventions in wireless health care, it
has been lauded by rock star cardiologist Eric
Topol and David Pogue, technology columnist
for the New York Times.
Small innovations such as AirStrip OB aim
for major breakthroughs in contexts of extreme adversity. They are not designed simply
to make incremental change and are proving
to be part of a broad global trend. We now
have, for example, cheap and space-efficient
sachet packaging of consumer goods in developing markets; microfinance or software-as-aservice to fit limited business budgets; smartphone apps and Twitter for mobile consumers
with fragmented attention capacity; and frugally engineered products (from vehicles to appliances to health care items) that ensure affordability and access in the fastest-growing
markets, which still face much adversity.
Opportunity 4: Think Platform, Not
Just Product
In general, the underlying factors that constrain one situation of adversity also constrain
others. This offers an opportunity to invest in
a meta-solution that can address several
unmet needs simultaneously, either in multiple market segments or various product markets. The multifaceted character of the opportunity also hedges the entrepreneurs risk and
helps the venture grow beyond the initial
point of entry. Clearly, entrepreneurs can exEntrepreneurs who
identify unlikely
candidates are able
to get a leg up.
This document is authorized for use only by Eric smith in Strategy at Strayer University, 2021.
Finding Competitive Advantage in Adversity
harvard business review november 2010 page 6
pect varying levels of success, but the broader
the ventures reach is, the greater the value to
be unlocked. The profit potential comes from
the capacity to enhance the business model at
three possible leverage points: customer
value, cost management, and growth-vector
Fred Khosravi and Amar Sawhney are an excellent example of a team who thought creatively about platform. Described by In Vivo as
the dynamic device development duo, these
biomedical entrepreneurs banded together to
create Incept. They wanted the company to
have no physical offices, only two or three employees, and an annual budget of less than $1
million. But Incept was a powerhouse. It held
the rights to a secret sauce that would be responsible for nine start-ups in 11 years (none of
them failed). Of the three spin-offs from these
companies, the first, Confluent Surgical, was
sold to Covidien for $245 million. The sauce
was hydrogel, a harmless and highly versatile
biodegradeable polymer.
Sawhney, the inventor of hydrogel technology, foresaw many applications, each solving a
dilemma for physicians who performed complex or minimally invasive surgeries in medical
specialties as varied as cardiology, gynecology,
neurology, and ophthalmology. Current uses
now include sealing organs and other parts of
the anatomy (such as the lungs, brain, spinal
cord, and blood vessels) that are at risk for
leakage during surgery. Hydrogels can also be
used to separate a damaged organ from an adjacent organ in order to avoid interference
with healing.
The duo had clearly tapped into an opportunity with long-term potential for improving surgical procedures. Hydrogel technology
was a true platform that could be applied to
many parts of the human anatomy and,
therefore, in multiple surgical markets. Ordinarily, venture capitalists and acquiring companies invest in a business whose core technologies are bundled with the products they
sell in specific markets. Sawhney and Khosravi
resisted convention, however, and focused on
keeping the platformand a stream of applications to address multiple problemsalive.
They knew that bundling the hydrogel technology with its application could allow an acquiring company to own it, apply it only in a
narrow market segment, and not use its full
potential. Instead, they organized Incept so
that it would own the patents on the hydrogel
technology and license them to independent
spin-off companies that Incept would incubate. It was a novel risk-management plan: an
entire portfolio of application spin-offs targeting different markets but centered on a common core technology.
The notion of platforms need not be limited,
though, to technologies and processes. Consider the case of the performance act Blue
Man Group. As artists, they found the 1980s to
be a particularly depressing decade. In New
York Citys Central Park in 1988, they performed Funeral for the 80s, during which
they buried a Rambo doll and a piece of the
Berlin Wall. For two decades since that unique
debut, they have drummed, splashed paint,
caught gumballs with their teeth, and smothered their audiences in toilet paper. The formula for the act was nothing short of a creative mission. Now that they are older and
have children, the members of the group have
turned their creative attention to another institution they find depressing: primary school education. They founded an alternative elementary school, called the Blue School, predicated
on the same mission-driven platform as that of
their original entertainment business: to inspire creativity and connect people with their
primal exuberance.
A New Twist on Adverse Selection
To ground your thinking about the benefits
that adversity can offer, go back to Michael E.
Porter in The Competitive Advantage of Nations:
Competitive advantage emerges from pressure, challenge, and adversity, rarely from an
easy life. Necessity, coupled with four key opportunities, can indeed be the mother of some
serious inventions.
During the 20th century, many breakthroughs took us to uncharted and unimagined territory. But now we are discovering
their unintended consequences: unbalanced
growth and self-limiting orthodoxies, which
may well be the predominant features of the
decades ahead. For example, the and auto industries are now in
search of radically new business models to
avoid obsolescence. Widespread discovery and
use of nonrenewable resources are revealing
their true environmental and geopolitical consequences. Health care innovations bred unsustainable cost structures, demographic imbalSelf-Assessment:
Opportunity in
Use these five questions to help you
unearth the competitive advantage
that adversity can offer:
1. What underlying customer needs
in your target market are being
curtailed by adversity? Have new
needs emerged because of the
adverse circumstances?
2. Look broadly across your
business and in completely unrelated
areas. What resourcesproducts,
people, materials, technologies, or
intellectual propertyare being
displaced or underutilized because of
the adversity?
3. Can you see a way to use
resources from your answers to
question 2 to fulfill a need you
identified in question 1?
4. What is the minimum change
that customers or your value chain
require to adopt your offering? Then,
what subsequent changes are likely,
and how far could the adoption
5. Can you repeat your success with
questions 1 to 4 in additional markets,
such as new customers or new
This document is authorized for use only by Eric smith in Strategy at Strayer University, 2021.
Finding Competitive Advantage in Adversity
harvard business review november 2010 page 7
ances, and limitations in pharmaceutical and
health care delivery. Globalization has created
myriad challenges of rapid growth in unevenly
developed economies (such as Brazil, China,
and India) and the potential that regional crises will spread throughout the world. And financial innovations led to uncontrolled speculative bubbles in some sectors. In the past few
years alone, we have experienced some of the
effects, including the Great Recession and its
still-uncertain recovery, an unprecedented crisis with the euro, and the largest accidental oil
spill in history. Clearly, the new normal is not
short on adversity.
None of this will weaken entrepreneurship
and innovation. The new abnormalsthe
entrepreneurs who survivewill be those who
harness the competitive advantage of adversity. The present century holds a treasure trove
of bottlenecks, constraints, and other major
difficulties that will be with us for a long time.
It would be a shame ifas entrepreneurs,
managers, and investorswe were to let such
an abundance of serious crises go to waste.
Reprint R1011H
To order, call 800-988-0886 or 617-783-7500
or go to
This document is authorized for use only by Eric smith in Strategy at Strayer University, 2021.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  +1 718 717 2861         [email protected]