History and Future PSCI 153C Fall 2021

History and Future
PSCI 153C Fall 2021
December 3, 2021
Kate Ryan Kuhlman, Ph.D., Assistant Professor
Department of Psychological Science
Today’s agenda
• Resilience review
• Kuhlman and colleagues (2021)
• History of the field
•Future directions and ethics
•Final paper
• Course Evaluations due today!
Kuhlman and colleagues (2021)
• Research question: What
psychosocial factors protect
adolescents from the impact of
COVID-19 on their mental health?
• Important concept: distress and worry
during the pandemic are NORMAL, but
can grow into bigger issues
• N = 88 adolescents participating in a
prospective longitudinal study on
COVID-19 and their mental health
(Summer 2020); ~20% with high
adversity exposure
Hey, I know them!
Kuhlman and colleagues (2021)
• Infrequent use of cognitive
reappraisal, self-enhancing and
affiliative humor placed adolescents at
greater risk
• Specifically for depressive symptoms,
anxiety symptoms, aggression, and
sleep disturbances
• Self-enhancing humor: tendency to
try to find humor in everyday situations
and make oneself the target of the
humor in a good-natured way.
• Affiliative humor: tendency to use
humor to bring people together and
create inclusiveness.
• Cognitive reappraisal: strategy for
altering emotional experience by
reframing or changing the way a
person thinks about a stimuli or
• For much of human history, children were viewed as the property of their parents, or
simply as small adults who were just “stupid” or “defective”.
• A person can’t experience “insanity” until age 25.
Placing Developmental
Psychopathology in Historical Context
The history of child psychiatry is interlocked with our
understanding of development, child-rearing practices, the
place of children in society, and with non-medical fields
such as juvenile justice and education.
Where do we go from here?
• Increasing inclusion:
• Vast majority of participants in
biomedical research are WEIRD
(“Western, educated, industrialized,
rich and democratic“)
• As a result our knowledge of basic
disease processes may be biased,
and resulting interventions underbenefit marginalized groups
Where do we go from here?
• Expanding access:
• Median delays among cases eventually
making contact (Wang et al., 2007):
• 3.0 to 30.0 years for anxiety disorders
• 1.0 to 14.0 years for mood disorders
• 6.0 to 18.0 years for substance use
• Standard treatment approaches do not
reach many communities (e.g., rural)
Where do we go from here?
• Expanding access:
• Median delays among cases eventually
making contact (Wang et al., 2007):
• 3.0 to 30.0 years for anxiety disorders
• 1.0 to 14.0 years for mood disorders
• 6.0 to 18.0 years for substance use
• Standard treatment approaches do not
reach many communities (e.g., rural)
Where do we go from here?
• Improving prevention:
Where do we go from here?
• Improving prevention:
• Fewer than half of teens get the recommended
8-10 hours of sleep per night
• Starting school at 8:30am or later increased that
rate to more than 60%
• Earlier start times were linked to mental health
symptoms of substance use
• Later start times linked to 70% reduction in
MVAs, and improvements in grades and
achievement in core subjects (Engligh, Math,
Wahlstrom et al., 2014
Five Ethical Principles in Psychology
Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence
• Psychologists strive to benefit those with whom they work and
take care to do no harm.
Five Ethical Principles in Psychology
Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility
• Psychologists establish relationships of trust with those
with whom they work. They are aware of their professional
and scientific responsibilities to society and to the specific
communities in which they work. Psychologists uphold
professional standards of conduct, clarify their
professional roles and obligations, accept appropriate
responsibility for their behavior, and seek to manage
conflicts of interest that could lead to exploitation or harm.
Five Ethical Principles in Psychology
Principle C: Integrity
• Psychologists seek to promote accuracy, honesty, and
truthfulness in the science, teaching, and practice of
Five Ethical Principles in Psychology
Principle D: Justice
• Psychologists recognize that fairness and justice entitle all
persons to access to and benefit from the contributions of
psychology and to equal quality in the processes, procedures,
and services being conducted by psychologists.
Five Ethical Principles in Psychology
Principle E: Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity
• Psychologists respect the dignity and worth of all people, and
the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiality, and selfdetermination.
Applying the Ethical Principles in
• Informed consent and assent
• Child coercion, parent refusal
• Transparency and voluntary nature of treatment and research
• Experiments and clinical trials
• Privacy and confidentiality
• Child Protection Mandates and suicidal ideation
• Scientific integrity
• Clarity and acknowledgement of limitations
• Objective: Gain experience consuming and summarizing
the results of primary scientific sources in the field of
developmental psychopathology.
• Due December 10th at 10am via CANVAS
• Choose a full length, empirical article from the November
2021 Issue of Research on Child and Adolescent
Psychopathology (formerly Journal of Abnormal Child
• Summarize the article for a lay audience (an adult who
hasn’t taken this course)
• For examples: See the Teen Resilience Blog
Final Paper
• The paper is due on
December 10th at 10am
• You will be rewarded
with 1 point of extra
credit for every 24 hour
period it is early (up to 5)
• No benefit to submitting
before December 4th
Final Paper: “Deadline”
Submission Extra credit / late penalty
Before 10am on 12/5 +5
Before 10am on 12/6 +4
Before 10am on 12/7 +3
Before 10am on 12/8 +2
Before 10am on 12/9 +1
Before 10am on 12/10 0
Before 10am on 12/11 -1
Before 10am on 12/12 -2
Before 10am on 12/13 -3
Before 10am on 12/14 -4
Before 10am on 12/15 -5
Before 10am on 12/16 -6
Before 5pm on 12/17 No longer accepted (grades due
12/16 at 5pm)
Final Paper
• Sign up for your article
• If the group is “full”,
you have to choose
another article
• 2 were full as of this
morning (Dotterer and
Final Paper Rubric
Objective Criterion Points
Research question Did the student correctly identify the primary research question being asked in the study? 10
Methods Did the student correctly describe the participants in the study (e.g., age, gender,
race/ethnicity, clinical characteristics, geographic region, etc)?
Methods Did the student correctly identify the independent variable in the study and how it was
Methods Did the student correctly identify the dependent variable in the study and how it was
Results Did the student accurately summarize the most important results of the study? 10
Results Did the student acknowledge the ways in which the study did and did not support the
Limitations Did the student identify at least 2 valid limitations of the study? 10
Implications Did the student identify the gap in scientific knowledge that is being filled by the study?
And the clinical value of that/those findings to society?
Above-and-beyond Any unique observations, insights, open questions, or proposed follow-up studies? 5
Course Learning
Objective 1
Did the student demonstrate their understanding of the course material as it relates to the
epidemiology and behavioral characteristics of disorder(s) discussed in the article?
Course Learning
Objective 2
Did the student demonstrate their understanding of the course material as it relates to the
biological, developmental, or environmental contributors to the disorder(s) discussed in
the article?
Format Is the paper between 950-1,000 words; 12-point, Times New Roman font 5
Writing and grammar Fewer than 2 spelling, grammatical, or typographical errors 5
Submission timing How many days before or after the deadline did the student submit the paper? 0
Elements of a research study
I. Research question: What gap in knowledge are the investigator trying to fill?
I. Independent variable: What is the factor (biological, behavioral, psychological) that they hypothesize
influences their outcome?
I. Measures: How did they “operationalize” or measure this factor?
II. Dependent variable: What is your psychological or biological outcome of interest? What is it that you
think is influenced by the IV?
I. Measures: How did they “operationalize” or measure this outcome?
III. Hypotheses: What did they expect to be the results of the study?
II. Results: What did they observe after completing the study? Did they find what they expected to find?
I. Limitations: If their hypotheses were confirmed, what were the reasons that their findings may not be
true in all individuals or under all possible circumstances? If their hypotheses were not confirmed, what
may have been the reasons that their study did not confirm the hypotheses?
Identifying the independent and
dependent variable
Independent variable:
COVID-19 Impact
Measure: CASPE
(events, distress)
Identifying the independent and
dependent variable
Dependent variable:
Mental health
Measure: RADS-2,
• Please complete them by 11:50 PST December 3rd
• My goal is to reach 100% (31% as of this morning )
• They are your voice for telling the University which courses and
professors you loved, taught you the most, inspired you the
most, and are your chance to shape UCI for future students.
• They help me make the class better for the next class
• What was your favorite topic we covered?
• Was there anything we didn’t cover that you wish we had?
• What did you think of the different types of assignments?
• Did you feel like you learned a lot? Do you feel like what you learned
will be valuable to you after you graduate?
• Here is the link: https://evaluations.eee.uci.edu/takeLanding/CNKH9J
Course Evaluations

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