How Italians or Belgians think of World War I aviation

– *
ptain Ren Fonck strikes a dashing pose
with one of the few Spad XVII fighters to
^^ produced before World War I ended.
‘He is a tiresome braggart, and even a bore, but in the air, a siasiiing rapier, ‘ wrote daude
Haegeien of squadron mate Ren Fonand he was one of Fon’s best friends
By Jon Guttman
hen Germans, Americans,
Italians or Belgians think of
World War I aviation, the
first names that come to mind are usually
their highest-scoring fighter pilots
Manfred Freiherr von Richthofen, Edward
Rickenbacker, Francesco Baracca and
Willy Coppens. An exception is France,
which most reveres its second-ranking
ace, Georges Guynemer, among its martyred heroes, while the higher-scoring
Ren Eonck settles for posterity’s grudging
respect for his wartime achievements. A less
romantic, more practical mind might note
that Guynemer literally burned himself out
in his single-minded patriotism, making his
death, in September 1917, almost inevitable.
Fonck, in contrast, flew, fought and lived by a
philosophy that dying for one’s country was
less desirable than making one’s opponent
die for his. Cynical though that outlook
seemed at the time, it was arguably more
mature and better suited for a fighter pilot’s
successand survival. But perhaps Eonck’s
biggest problem compared to Guynemer was
that he survived.
Born in Saulcy-le-Meurthe on March 27,
1894, Ren Paul Fonck grew to be a rather
short, unremarkable-looking young man
whose own self-serving writings suggest ambitions at least partially driven by an inferiority complex. He claimed that his upbringing
in the Alsace-Lorraine region, seized by the
Adjutant Fonck sits In the cockpit of a Spad VH
shortly after he Joined Escadrille N.103 in 1917.
Germans after the humiliating FrancoPrussian War of 1870-71, had imbued him
with a desire for revenge. When World War I
broke out, he was mobilized on August 22,
1914, and assigned to the 2nd Groupe d’Aviation at Dijon. He was transferred to an engineer unit a month later, but by then Fonck
had made up his mind that the new and rapidly developing airplane was his most promising ticket to glory. On February 15,1915, he
managed to get reassigned to St.-Cyr for
flight training.
After earning his pilot’s brevet at Le Crotoy, on June 15 Corporal Fonck was assigned
to Escadrille (squadron) C.47 based at Corcieux, not tar from his hometown. Fonck
considered the unit’s Caudron G.3s “slow and
cumbersome,” and after encountering a
German plane while returning from a reconnaissance over Colmar, he wrote that he “no
longer took off without carrying a good carbine.” On July 2, Fonck attacked an enemy
plane over Mnster, but the German retired none the worse for wear. He had several other inconclusive aerial encounters
and survived having his engine disabled
by an anti-aircraft shell burst, which compelled him to force-land in Allied lines.
In October C.47 switched from G.3s to
twin-engine Caudron G.4s, and Fonck
flew 13 long-range recon missions and 24
artillery-spotting flights during the month.
Some of the G.4s carried cameras, which
as Fonck noted in his autobiography. Mes
CoTjfflts, “gives a clearer and more exact map,
once corrected and adjusted for scale, than
the work of the best professional geographer.”
He also observed that German anti-aircraft
fire was intensifying. During a photoreconnaissance mission in June 1916, a shell tore
through Fonck’s right wing, missing his
nacelle by less than a yard. “If the projectile
had exploded on contact with my wing, my
fate would have been sealed,” he wrote. “1 am
not ashamed of the slight case of shivers that
I still experience at this memory.”
In July Fonck mounted a Lewis machine
gun to fire forward over his Caudron’s upper
wing. During one mission that month, a shell
burst disabled one of his engines, but he
returned on the remaining motor. Then,
while Fonck and his observer were photographing the Roye area on August 6, two
Fokker E.III fighters tried tu interfere. Eonck
aggressively attacked and saw one Fokker dive
The French ace stands next to S452, one of two Spad Xlls armed with a 37mm cannon that were assigned to Spa.103 in May 1918.
toward its lines, while the other retired. The
Frenchmen resumed their photographic
work until Fonck noticed French anti-aircraft
fire directed at two Rumpler C.Is over
Estres-Saint-Denis. He dived on them, and
when one broke away, Fonck gave chase,
matching its turns while its observer fired
random shots at him. “For twenty minutes at
least, from bank to bank and spiral to spiral,”
he wrote, “we descended from an altitude of
4,000 meters until we landed on a grassy field
where, their will broken, two Boche officers
surrendered^the only prisoners I ever took.”
German records noted that 2nd Lt. Hermann
von Raumer and Reserve 1st Lt. Adam Brey
were taken prisoner that day.
On March 17,1917, Fonck and his observer
helped bring down an Albatros north of
Cernay-en-Laonnais. Fonck was clearly more
fighter than recon pilot material, and on April
25 he was transferred to N.103 of Groupe de
Combat 12. Also known as “Les Cigognes” for
the stork emblems that graced the sides of its
Nieuport 17s and Spad Vlls, GC.12 was the
elite group in the French air service, boasting
such renowned fighters as Alfred Heurteaux,
Albert Deullin, Ren Dorme and Georges
Guynemer. When Fonck arrived, however,
N.103, a bomber unit recently turned into a
fighter squadron, had yet to boast an ace of its
own. Fonck aimed to be the first.
“I had obtained a new plane, naturally; a
brand-new Spad with which 1 promised
myself to do a great job,” wrote Fonck. It took
him and his mechanics two days to get the
aircraft performing to his satisfaction, but his
careful preparations paid off on May 5, when
he and three comrades encountered five
Albatros D.IIIs over Laon. Sergeant Pierre
Schmitter’s plane was hit, and Sergeant
Claude Haegelen and Lieutenant Pierre Henri
Hervet were hard-pressed when Fonck intervened and fired point-blank at a German
who suddenly emerged fi’om a cloud in fi-ont
of him. “His plane immediately nose-dived to
a crash at the corner of a wooded area,” Fonck
wrote. His victim. Warrant Officer Anton
Dierle of Jagdstaffel (fighter squadron, or
Jasta) 24, was killed.
In spite of his genuine accomplishments,
Fonck’s description of that actionand of
numerous others thereafterreeks of the
vanity he often exhibited around fellow
pilots. He did not mix well with others, impressing comrades as being either withdrawn,
shy or conceited. Either way, he did not endear himself to fellow fliers.
“He is not a truthful man,” said Haegelen,
who was nevertheless one of Fonck’s best
firiends. “He is a tiresome braggart, and even a
bore, but in the air, a slashing rapier, a steel
blade tempered with unblemished courage
and priceless skill….But afterwards, he can’t
forget how he rescued you, nor let you forget
it. He can almost make you vsh he hadn’t
helped you in the first place.” Swiss volunteer
Jacques Roques summed up Fonck by saying,
“As a fighter pilot, in one word, the best.. .but
he was not a very sympathetic character.”
In seeming contradiction to his grating
personality, Fonck’s lifestyle was arguably
among the most sensible for a fighter pilot of
his time. While Guynemer flew relentlessly,
and third-ranking French ace Charles Nungesser alternated between fighting, womanizing and drinking, getting barely two hours of
sleep at night, Fonck rested between missions, drank moderately and spent much of
his leisure time practicing his marksmanship.
Fonck downed an Albatros on May 11, and
scored his ace-making fifth victory two days
later. He added only one more plane to his
score over the next two months, but as Fonck
described it, it was not without significance:
i was out on patrol very early on the morning
of lune 12 and discovered two Albatroses
which were climbing. Instantly I followed
them in their maneuvers and suddenly
pounced on them with the sun at my back… .1
saw them clearly stand out against the sky,
which seemed to get lighter at each moment,
while they must have had an unclear vision of
me in the blinding rays of the sun. I realized
immediately that I had to deal with two seasoned veterans, but the first appeared to fly
straight in the direction of his lines. The other
came around to meet me with determination. .. .In this way, with one behind me and
the other in front, they were going to fire at me
together at their ease. I had the impression at
that moment that my iife was hanging on a
thread, and to avoid an imminent bullet, 1
risked an abrupt turn which would bring my
adversary into my field of fire. His next
attempt was unfortunate and his bank too
slow. I was able to empty my band of cartridges into him broadside. His disabled plane
rapidly nose-divedthe pilot himself killed by
a bullet in the throat His companion tried to
take advantage of the situation in order to
escape me, but it was too late. I immediately
overtook him and shot him down, too.
Information found on one of my two victims showed that my victory was going to take
on the proportions of a catastrophe in Germany, i had brought down Captain Von Baer,
the commanding officer of one of their best
fighter squadrons. He had twelve victories to his
credit and was considered one of the enemy’s
most skilled pilots. I was warmly congratulated.
Fonck’s postscript was not entirely correct,
although he had in fact killed an enemy of
some stature. Reserve Captain Eberhard von
Seel had no victories to his credit, but he had
taken command oijasta 17 on May 10little
more than a month before Fonck terminated
his career.
In late Iuly, when GC.12 moved to Dunkirk in the Flanders sector, to face some of the
best fighter squadrons in the German air
service, the aerial action heated up considerably. On August 19, Fonck embarked on a
winning streak, downing an enemy plane
daily until the 22nd.
Shortly after GC. 12’s arrival in their sector,
some British pilots arrived to familiarize its
personnel with their aircraft. During that
visit Corporal Louis Risacher, a Parisian-born
flying instructor transferred to N.3 on lune
27, recalled an incident that revealed a difference in technique between the renowned
Guynemer and the rising star Fonck: “There
was a Canadian 1 remember, one of their aces,
I cannot remember his name. He offered to
have a mock dogfight with Fonck and Guynemer. .. .Guynemer had the first ‘fight.’ lt was
decided by Guynemer and the Canadian ace
that they would cross in the air and the
‘combat’ would begin at once. Immediately,
Guynemer was on his tail and he could not get
him oft… .Guynemer had outmaneuvered a
Sopwith Camel in a Spadabsolutely!
“Fonck said, ‘Send me three pilots, and I
will attack them. They will never see me.’
Three English pilots started, and were over
the field, where we had lost sight of Fonck.
Suddenly, there was a Spad flying through the
three Englishmen. It was Fonck. That was the
difference between the two schools. Fonck
was a very good pilot, of course, but he never
made a dogfighting maneuver n the air, he
always flew flat. Not to be seen by anybody. .. that was his style.”
On September 11, 1917, Captain Georges
Guynemer, victor over 53 German aircraft
since 1915, did not return from a patrol.
Fvnch soldlers xamlrw th recovered remains of a Rumpler CIV brought down by Sub-Lieutenant Fonck in the spring of 191B.
Everyone in GC.12 swore revenge,
including Fonck. On September 14, he
destroyed a two-seater in flames over
Langemarck. “Such was the fimeral of
Guynemer to me,” he later wrote.
GC.12 left Flanders for Maisonneuve on November 11, and moved to
Beauze sur-Aire on January 17,1918.
By then the group had given up the
last of its Nieuports and its squadrons
had been redesignated accordingly,
including Fonck’s Spa.103. The new
year brought new fighters to the
group in the form of the Spad XIH,
equipped with a 220-hp geared
Hispano-Suiza 8B engine and twin
machine guns. Ordered into production back in February 1917, the Spad
XJII boasted a maximum speed of 124
mph and a climb rate of 13,000 feet in
11 minutes, but problems with the
engine’s spur reduction gear had
delayed its fi”ontline arrival and would
handicap it for months thereafter.
In spite of the Spad XlII’s shortcomings,
Fonck found its speed and sturdiness in a
dive ideal for his stalking tactics. Adapting to
it readily, he downed two opponents on
January 19, and by March 17 had raised his
score to 30.
On March 21,1918, the Germans launched
the first of several offensives designed to
knock France out of the war, and GC.12 was,
as usual, in the forefront of the resistance,
strafing troops and attacking every enemy
plane its pilots encountered. Fonck’s contribution included a victory on March 28, two
on the 29th, two more on April 12 and another on the 22nd.
Even during this intense period of fighting,
Fonck’s self-absorbed attitude continued to
alienate his fellow Storks. Edwin C. Parsons, a
former pilot of Escadrille N.124 “Lafayette”
who transferred to Spa.3, wrote of how, during one of Fonck’s pompous lectures on air
fighting, he and fellow Lafayette Flying Corps
volunteer Frank L. Baylies bet a bottle of
champagne that they could bring down a
German before he could. Fonck accepted,
and on May 9, despite hazy conditions,
Baylies caught a Halberstadt CLII between
Braches and Gratibus, sending it crashing
down in German lines. Back at GC.12’s aerodrome at Htomesnil, Fonck complained
that the bad weather had prevented him from
going on patrol and asked that the wager be
A color postcard, made from a painting done by JosephFlix Boucher m May 1918, shows Fonck posing with his
Spad Xlil S700, which bore the Roman numeral VI.
altered to favor whoever downed the most
enemy planes that day The Americans reluctantly agreed.
Fonck didn’t fly until 3 that afternoon, but
an hour later he claimed three two-seaters
south of Moreuil that fell within 400 yards of
each other in a matter of 45 seconds. Baylies
and Parsons set out again at 5:30, but had no
further luck. At the same time, Fonck was
patrolling with Sub-Lieutenant Lon Thouzelier and Sergeant Jean Brugre, but lost them
in some fog. Upon emerging fi-om it, he spotted a German two-seater over Montdidier,
which he promptly shot down. Fonck admitted that he was pleased to have lost his wingmen, stating, “I prefer to fiy alone in the middle of my adversaries anyway, without having
the additional responsibilities of protecting
my comrades….I try never to let a comrade
down; but above all, 1 like my freedom of
action, for it is indispensable to the success of
my undertakings.”
Shortly before 7, Fonck encountered four
Fokker D.VIIs with five Albatros D.Vas flying
above them. “I hesitated to attack,” he wrote,
“but the desire to round out my performance
won out over prudence, and I chose the risks
of combat.” Diving on the Fokkers, Fonck
picked off the trailing plane, shot down the
leader eight seconds later and then dived
away from the seven remaining fighters. His
victims, 2nd Lt. Ernst Schulze and Staff Sgt.
Otto Kutter of Jasta 48, were both killed.
Curiously, while Parsons stated that
Fonck won the champagne, the French
ace never mentioned the wager in his
memoirs. In any case, Fonck had
proved he was more than just an
obnoxious windbag, having scored a
phenomenal six confirmed victories in
one afternoon.
At about that time, two unusual
Spads arrived at Spa.103. Designed at
Guynemer’s request, the Spad XII used
a variation on Hispano-Suiza’s geared
engine, the 8Cb, which raised the propeller above tbe cylinder heads to
allow a 37mm Puteaux cannon with a
shortened barrel to fire through a hollow propeller shaft. Elegant looking on
the outside, the Spad XII was decidedly different inside the cockpit, where
the cannon breech protruded between
the pilot’s legs, and aileron controts on either side of his seat instead
of a central control column. A highly skilled
pilot like Guynemer could master such a system, but he was also forced to deal with the
heavy recoil of a single-shot weapon that
filled the cockpit with smoke upon firing and
had to be reloaded by hand. The Spad XII was
additionally armed with a synchronized .30-
caliber Vickers machine gun that could be
used to help sight the cannon on a target or to
help the pilot fight his way out of trouble after it had been fired.
Guynemer had scored four victories in the
first Spad XII in July and August 1917, and
the air service ordered 1,000 cannon Spads. Il
is doubtful that more than 20 were completed, however, before production problems
with the engine and cannon arrangement led
to the order being canceled in favor of the
simpler Spad XIII.
The few cannon Spads that reached frontline squadrons were usually allocated to
pilots of proven ability. These included Spad
XIIs S445 and S452, both of which were
fiown by Fonck^yet his first combat in the
fighter was almost his last. On May 19, he
attacked five German aircraft from above and
sent 20 machine gun bullets into the rearmost plane, which nosed down into a spiraling dive. He also used the machine gun to
deal with a second adversary.
“For his part, my buddy Brugre brought
down another one,” wrote Fonck in his memoirs, “but Thouzelier, having engine trouble.
was at grips with the last two, who furiously
tailed him and riddled him with bullets in his
descent. Seeing him in such a bad spot. I tried
to relieve him hy a rapid turn, but as I was flying upside down, my extra cartridges, placed
at my side in a case, fell among the controls
and one of them got wedged in.
“I felt myself tearing through the air on my
l>ack at full speed,” Fonck continued, “and I
was afraid at any instant that I would be shot
down by the German whom I was about to
attack, and who, realizing my critical situation, would follow me firing away with his
machine gun. I was carrying a new Spad test
gun for the first time, and I also did not know
how to maneuver in order to get out of the
situation. Believing my situation to be hopeless, I resolved to risk everything. I abandoned the controls and picked up the scattered shells, which I threw over the side one
by one. The few seconds this operation took
seemed like an eternity to me, but I was
finally able to straighten out 1,000 meters
below. Never before did I feel death pass by
so closely.”
Fonck eventually claimed 11 victories in
ieSpadXII,of which seven were confirmed.
Throughout the summer of 1918, his score
rose steadilyoften by two or three victories
a day. During the last German assault over the
Marne River, begun on July 14, he downed
two planes on luly 16, two more on the
18th and three on the 19th as the French
army counterattacked. A two-seater on
August ! was followed on August 14 by
three morewithin 10 seconds. “They
came toward me following each other at
50-meter intervals,” Fonck explained.
“Upon crossing them, 1 cut loose a burst
at each one, and each time my bullets hit
their target. They fell near the city of Roye
and ended up by burning on the ground,
separated by less than 100 meters. These
were my fifty-eighth, fifty-ninth and sixtieth official Boches.”
On September 26, Fonck took off from
La Noblette aerodrome and soon encountered five Fokker D.VIIs. “Without giving
them time to work out by signals their
plan to attack me,” he wrote, “I dived into
their midst at full speed, guns blazing.
Letting myself then fly on my wing, I
turned over completely in order to rocket
up hehind one of the planes which already
had fired at me. But I also had fired, and
two of the German planes crashed to
earth in the vicinity of Sommepy. The others,
fearing for their safety, had thought it more
prudent to take to their heels.”
Regaining altitude, Fonck noticed a
Halberstadt two-seater under French antiaircraft fire and attacked it over Perthes-lesHurlus, killing its observer. Reserve 2nd Lt.
Eugen Anderer, with his first shots. “The
defenseless pilot became frightened,” Fonck
reported, “and his vertical dive was so sudden
and steep that his companion, whom I had
just sent off to join his ancestors, toppled
overboard and almost fell on top of me at the
moment of finishing my loop, when I was
going to climb in order to attack the twoseater again.” Fonck then sent the plane
crashing down minus a wing, killing Staff Sgt.
Richard Scholl.
Leading a patrol with three squadron
mates that same evening, Fonck encountered
eight more Fokkers. “1 awaited the attack confidently and would have willingly provoked it
when a Spad came in unexpectedly to lend a
hand,” he said. “I immediately recognized
Gaptain [Xavier] de Sevin and the ‘Storks’ of
the 26th.”
The French attacked, but the Germans
gave Fonck one of the toughest fights of his
career. Adjutant Brugre downed a Fokker,
then was attacked by two others, one of
Fonck of Spa.103 (left) shares the iimelight with
Lieutenant Gustave Laqache, commander of
Spa.3, and Lieutenant Bernard Barny de Romanet,
18-victory ace and commander of Spa.167.
which Fonck shot down in the process of rescuing him. Five Albatros two-seaters entered
the melee, and Fonck downed two of them as
well. “Two others owed their skins to a jamming of my machine gun,” he stated, “and
despite the cold, which perpetually reigns in
high altitude, I must confess I felt drenched
with perspiration upon returning to the field.
But for me, the day had been excellent. 1 now
had sixty-six official victories to my credit.”
He had also become the only World War I ace
with two six-victory days in his combat log.
Fonck shot down two enemy planes on
October 5, followed by three more on the
30th and two on the 31 St. His victory over a
Halberstadt on November 1 was also the last
for GG.12 before the armistice was signed on
the 11th, bringing its total to 286 aircraft and
five balloons, although if victories prior to the
group’s formation are counted, the collective
wartime total of its component squadrons
came to 411 planes and 11 balloons. The
group’s top-scoring squadron had been Spa.3
with 175 victories, but Spa.103 ranked second with a wartime total of HI73 of
which had been scored by one individtial:
Ren Fonck.
With 75 confirmed victoriesand 52
unconfirmedFonck was the undisputed
Allied ace of aces, yet he never received the
adulation bestowed upon Guynemer and
Nungesser. On September 21,1926, he set
out from New York on a nonstop transatlantic flight attempt to Paris, but his overloaded Sikorsky S.35 crashed on takeoff,
killing two of its four-man crew. He served
as inspector of France’s fighter force prior
to 1940. After World War 11 he was accused
of collaborating with the Germans, though
he was never brought to trial. While uncounted volumes have been written about
Guynemer, the only author who wrote a
book devoted to Fonck was Fonck himself. He was 59 when he died in Paris on
June 18, 1953, an unrequited seeker of
glory whose deeds could easily have spoken for him eloquently enough by themselvesif only he had let them. +
Aviation History research director }on
Guttman is the author of several books on
World War aviation, including Groupe de
Combat 12, “Les Cigognes.” For further
reading, he recommends: The Storks, by
Norman Franks and Frank Bailey, and Ace
of Aces, by Ren Fonck.

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You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

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We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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Basic features
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  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
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  • Overnight delivery
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Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

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Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

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Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

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Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

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