International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

Rough Draft













Student’s Name : Khanh Gia Nguyen










Rough Draft


Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a broad terminology for several rare groups of uncommon brain disarrays that affect the brain’s frontal and temporal. The brain’s frontal is generally linked with language., behavior and personality attacks the limbic system by degenerating the frontal lobes, and the results vary depending on the part of the brain that is most affected. Generally, the common signs and symptoms include oscillating moods akin to bi-polar patients, drastic personality changes, memory loss. As a result, the patient loses the social, moral code and, in others, impaired language capabilities (Olney, 2017). The limbic system or the paleomammalian cortex is located just below the medial part of the temporal lobe. Its functions are connected to learning abilities, flight or flight stimuli, memory, hormone production key in regulating the autonomic nervous system., motivation and reward, hunger and thirst.

Consequently, when FTD affects it, one experiences irregular emotional disruptions such as anger. Usually, FTD is often misclassified while as a psychic problem while it is not. This paper will expound on how frontotemporal dementia affects the limbic system and dementia patients’ response environment.

How dementia affects the limbic system

The hippocampus-The hippocampus is located deep in the brain’s temporal lobe and performs memory and learning. It is prone to damage by various stimuli. It is among the first areas of the brain affected by dementia, leading to a patient’s loss in generating new memories and involving the brain faculty that makes it possible to learn further information. A patient may find a hard time remembering what they did very recently, say if they brushed their teeth in the morning but remember what happened 20 years ago in preschool. The difference is that long-term memories do not rely heavily on the hippocampus compared to short-term memories. The trait above is highlighted in patients who tend to repeat details in conversations they just had.

Amygdala – The Amygdala in the brain steers the fight or flight stimuli in one’s body and is closely associated with the stress and fear emotions; also, it plays a chief role in the memory faculty. In a dementia patient, the amygdala is usually affected much later after the hippocampus. Consequently, the patient is likely to remember specific emotional facets of an event even when they do not remember the outstanding facts about that particular event .hence, the patient’s behavior is driven more by fleeting feelings rather than by logical reasoning (Lorusso & Bosch, 2018).

Limbic cortex- As the damage caused by frontotemporal dementia spreads further across the brain, more areas are affected, including the cortex. The cortex, the outermost brain layer, atrophies, further results in the loss of long-term memories and the brain’s general shrinkage. As the damage spreads to the brain’s left hemisphere, a patient may struggle to find the correct word for something and result in frustration. The impairment is because the left hemisphere is connected to the linguistic memory or one’s language control. Further, damage to the visual cortex, the brain’s largest cortex, creates visual impairment to the patient; thus, the patient finds it hard to recognize familiar faces such as those of the spouse and children. However, since the hearing component is separate from the visual part, the patient may realize the speaker once they hear their voice. Also, simple objects become harder to identify. Notably, the dementia patient may acknowledge someone at an emotional level even when they can not discern them.

Parietal lobe – When the damage spreads to the parietal lobe, the patient may find it hard to discern distances correctly, and using the stairs may prove difficult.

Hypothalamus – Dementia’s effect on the hypothalamus leads to the patient losing weight, oscillating body temperatures at extreme levels. In some severe cases, the patient experiences insomnia due to the disrupted sleep cycles.

How dementia physically affects the brain and alters brain functioning

Intelligence, judgment, and behavioral challenges – A dementia patient’s decision-making capabilities are likely to be imparted since FTD affects most brain faculties involved in memory, comprehension, and processing. However, this does not overtly rule that the patient can still make decisions; the only difference is the quality of those decisions and the train of thought in processing them. Impaired judgment is also commonplace in dementia patients. Usually, the patients fall into the traps of unscrupulous individuals who strip them of their money and valuable possessions. Also, the victims give away money without first critiquing the situation; further, caring for pets becomes exhausting since the patient can barely look after themselves. Due to the affected emotional capabilities, patients may act irrationally and neglect the moral code more out of impulse than will; most response is due to emotions rather than logically thinking through events, the most common emotional response being anger (Reyes, 2017). Consequently, most people find dementia patients tiresome to look after, which and a general nuisance.

Affected language expression – dementia patients find a hard time looking for the appropriate words to say in a conversation, medically known as anomia. This is because the semantic part of the brain is damaged. Consequently, the patients use lesser words than usual which significantly impacts their self-expression. The most conversation gradually morphs into vague phrases. In older people, they end up sounding like children trying to learn a language but louder than usual.

Reward, motivation, and addiction challenges- In dementia patients, processing reward is complex. As a result, motivation is secondary in their interaction .this trait is mainly caused by a parallel condition known as apathy. Compensation involves stimuli of anticipation and processing the reward when it arrives, and reevaluation of the situation for future reference; unfortunately, in dementia, the brain faculties that process these stimuli are affected. Thus, motivation is a foreign concept to the patients. Addiction recovery in dementia patients is an uphill task by all standards; with damage to cognition, memory, and perception, recovery may be difficult for them.

Emotional responses; formation of sensory memories

Dementia patients usually have little to no control over their emotions since severe oscillation from extremely happy to sad to boiling anger in short bursts of time. Consequently, patients live in guilt and fear of the future and the effect of the mood swings on their immediate family or caregivers. The frustration of forgetfulness is usually overwhelming, and the backlash heavy on the people the patients.

Fight or flight; response to anger and fear emotions

With the amygdala damaged, a patient’s emotional headquarters is also damaged because it is here that emotions are processed fear, happiness, sadness, and so on. Dealing with emotions calls for the fight or flight response; when someone is stressed out, the fight response may be lashing out or breaking stuff; the flight response may be bottling up the emotions leading to depression. Patients living with dementia have these capabilities damaged, and as a result, they find it hard to process their feelings, thus the socially inappropriate behavior.

Importance of studying the effects

With the impulsive mannerisms that dementia patients uncontrollably portray, it is paramount that caregivers and close family and friends understand the effects of dementia. This will help them empathize and give more personalized care to the deserving patients and support them in the most loving way possible. Also, being there for the patient will help ease memory loss’s frustration by offering prompts to the bits of memory they remember to get to the eureka moment. Notably, understanding the effects gives a better chance of understanding the optimal therapy and treatment to offer the patients and consequently improve their quality of life two-fold. If a patient makes mistakes, understanding them will be a better response instead of bashing them for crude behavior.

The patient’s response to the world

The primary response of dementia patients includes oscillating mood swings, which may lead to irritability. General memory loss and impaired semantic faculties usually lead to immense frustration. Notably, socially inappropriate behavior fuels guilt and shame, especially in front of familiar faces, family, and friends (Finney & Mendez, 2017). Consequently, the guilt and shames morph into depression and social withdrawal to avoid future scenarios of those mentioned above. Resultantly, one’s self-esteem becomes deflated, and confidence is lost.


Studying dementia is imperative to shedding light on the care routines to give dementia patients the quality of life dictated by human decency. As expounded above, the effects of dementia, such as extreme emotional mood swings and aggression coupled with compulsive tendencies, call for an understanding caregiver and empathy of the highest degree (Craig et al., 2018). With the correct form of treatment and therapy, caregivers can manage the condition logically. The care will assure the dementia patients control of their behavior and a hold on their self-esteem, and boost their confidence levels. The knowledge of the best ways of managing dementia patients aids caregivers avoids blaming the victim. As a result, they stay reassured and reflect on a kinder demeanor which makes emotional changes such as aggression less of a problem.




















Craig, C., Hiskey, S., Royan, L., Poz, R., & Spector, A. (2018). Compassion-focused therapy for people with dementia: A feasibility study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry33(12), 1727-1735.

Dyer, S. M., Harrison, S. L., Laver, K., Whitehead, C., & Crotty, M. (2018). An overview of systematic reviews of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. International psychogeriatrics30(3), 295-309.

Ebert, A., Huggins, M., Wagner, H., Lightcap, Z., Muir, T., Faulkenberry, M., & Fiske, A. (2020). The Effects of Dementia Knowledge on Dementia Worry, Attitudes, Social Comfort, and Affect. Innovation in Aging4(Suppl 1), 286.

Finney, C. M., & Mendez, M. F. (2017). Diogenes syndrome in frontotemporal dementia. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Other Dementias®32(7), 438-443.

Lorusso, L. N., & Bosch, S. J. (2018). Impact of multisensory environments on behavior for people with dementia: a systematic literature review. The Gerontologist58(3), e168-e179.

Olney, N. T., Spina, S., & Miller, B. L. (2017). Frontotemporal dementia. Neurologic clinics35(2), 339-374.




Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  +1 718 717 2861         [email protected]