Initial Post 1:
Demand management is a multi-process to identifying various new ideas, projects, and needs during the creation of a portfolio. Proper balancing in product and services with production ability, including resources and supplies, is mandatory to control planning, production, and delivery, else it might produce lack of resource management, poor quality in product, and finally customer satisfaction (Gentle, 2007). The more the process can capture the real strategic commitment of the organization and merge it with the past, ongoing activities, the more demand is a success factor in building the correct portfolio. Demand management should be treated as a specific matter to manage within portfolio management and assigned as a clear responsibility to a specific team.
Strategic initiative management is to prioritize and to fund IT investments at the enterprise level. It is the administrative technique, and the ability to develop and implement new strategic initiatives and change rapidly is becoming a key differentiator (Designing cost-effective demand, 1999). Organizations focus on defining major strategic initiatives, but many companies struggle to implement those initiatives. Strategic initiative management helps to enable this by actively supporting the implementation of critical vital programs by allocating enough budget for IT if possible.
APM focuses on existing applications, unlike PPM does to their future projects, which tries to balance expenses against the value (Caruso, 2007). APM helps an organization to reduce operating costs related to technology as well as produce business value with proper staff and maintenances needs. Determining and updating IT functions performance, shapes, used technology, and cost improvement are processed by APM, which helps the organization to accomplish its goal effectively.
Enterprise Architecture, the primary intent of EA is to create a secure connection between technology and business EA is the key. To successfully execute on business strategies, the organization must practice analyzing, designing, planning, and implementation, which are significant parts of EA. There are many different suggested frameworks to develop an enterprise architecture, as discussed later on.
IT must take responsibility and leadership in managing demands. The relationship between IT and the business was not nearly as well established and lacked the requisite foundation of mutual trust (Smith and McKeen 2010). It by and large have almost no comprehension of its interest and supply chains, and would make some hard memories having the option to respond to critical inquiries like, “What is as of now in the funnel?” or, “What do we need to convey throughout the following a half year?” or, “What is our anticipated asset use for the following quarter?”. One organization mapped out a set of generic attributes for an effective ITbusiness partnership capable of shaping demand for IT resources like, Relationship management, Leadership, Clear business requirements, Marketing skills.
Governance & Transparency in every organization wants the business managers to manage the IT demands, and business managers always want to control their business with technology. IT managers are also motivated to provide a system that can help to accomplish the business manager’s requirements. Identifying both IT and business needs are in the governance mechanism. Transparency and governance stay together. It is mandatory to understand the process by everyone to manage the goal. Understand all information, raise the question when there are concerns, apply them correctly for effective decision making.
Initial Post 2:
Demand management is the process an organization puts in place to internally collect new ideas, projects, and needs during the creation of a portfolio. Demand management is successful when the final output is useful to prioritize and select a valuable, strategically aligned portfolio (Designing cost-effective demand, 1999). The more the process can capture the real strategic commitment of the organization and merge it with the past, ongoing activities, the more demand is a success factor in building the correct portfolio. Demand management should be treated as a specific matter to manage within portfolio management and assigned as a clear responsibility to a specific team.
The critical organizational enablers for effective demand management are:
Strategic initiative management: For many businesses today, generally, only two things are certain: uncertainty and an accelerating pace of change. In this environment, the ability to develop and implement new strategic initiatives and change rapidly is becoming a key differentiator (Designing cost-effective demand, 1999). Organizations focus on defining major strategic initiatives, but many companies struggle to implement those initiatives. Strategic initiative management helps to enable this by actively supporting the implementation of critical strategic programs by allocating enough budget for IT if possible.
Application Portfolio management: Application portfolio management is like taking a proactive approach to managing our wardrobe. That t-shirt we bought on impulse before arriving home and realizing it does not match anything we already have? Chances are it is still gathering dust in the back of a drawer. Things would have worked out better had we taken a more methodical approach. For example, we could have looked at our existing clothes before we went shopping, identified the gaps, and selected items to fill them. Coincidentally, it is the same story with enterprise applications (Mariolis, Ntemiroglou & Soklis, 2018). As organizations grow, IT departments and even individual employees buy applications to solve urgent problems without giving any (or at least enough) thought to the implications. As a result, apps pile up that are difficult or impossible to integrate with existing apps or other systems. Similar apps for completing the same tasks are purchased multiple times. Others fall out of favor and are no longer used, but are still paid for, and never uninstalled. Furthermore, still, others are bought and never used at all!
Enterprise architecture: Many organizations today are establishing an Enterprise Architecture (EA) business function. However, the knowledge about enterprise architecture concepts, frameworks, and processes within many organizations is still quite limited and at a low level of maturity. Very often, there is a good understanding of the technology and infrastructure architecture and, to a lesser extent of the application architecture but far less understanding of the enterprise architecture discipline. According to many surveys, the majority of organizations usually choose to create their own EA framework rather than adopt an existing one. The reasons for this vary, from the requirement to support a service-oriented architecture, object orientation, and component-based development viewpoints, to a pure desire to use different terminology that is tailored to the language used within the organization (Baev, Aleksandrovna & Dzyuba, 2018). The purpose of this EA Wiki is to provide organizations with a standard reference for the leading Enterprise Architecture concepts, frameworks, processes, and best practices that can be used today to create a tailored enterprise architecture.
Business IT Partnership: In order to manage the planning, production, and delivery, any adequately run business has to be able to balance orders for its products and services (i.e., demand) with its ability to produce them in terms of resource and scheduling constraints (i.e., supply). Otherwise, it might produce too little of what is required, too much of what is not required, or deliver late, or have problems with the product quality or customer satisfaction. The average IT department, though not a business from a profit and loss perspective (the exceptional IT profit-center notwithstanding), has a resource base comprising highly paid specialists, produces highly sophisticated products and services, and has an annual budget of anywhere from two to 10 percent of annual revenue. Nevertheless, it does an abysmal job of managingwhen managing at all necessary supply and demand (Grandzol & Grandzol, 2018). It generally has very little understanding of its demand and supply chains, and would have a hard time being able to answer fundamental questions like, “What is currently in the pipe?” or, “What do we have to deliver over the next six months?” or, “What is our projected resource utilization for the next quarter?”
Governance and Transparency: There is growing recognition among enterprises of all types and sizes that the key to getting great business results from IT is to run IT like a business. It is no longer enough to focus on managing IT projects and outcomes. Executives are embracing IT governance strategies that focus on the business outcomes of IT projects. They are keenly aware that optimizing IT governance processes is a prerequisite for optimizing the business. Furthermore, they are implementing IT governance solutions that can manage the priorities, processes, and people needed to transform IT from a cost center into a competitive weapon (Dzyuba & Soloveva, 2018). Demand management, or the management of all the requests made to IT, is a core element of IT governance and is, in fact, an excellent starting point for implementing a comprehensive governance strategy. Many CIOs today view IT governance not as a “process” but as an iterative cycle of planning and execution.
Initial Post 3:
For IT demand management, various processes are involved. To have organizational demand management, five key enablers are used. Firstly, there is strategic initiative management that deals with coming up with priorities on what is to be covered and funded. This process also involves considering infrastructure projects and also providing governance and directions. Strategic initiatives form a vital step because it gives the organization the required structure for alignment of different activities (McKeen, 2015).
Secondly, is the application management portfolio. This capability deals with the existing applications whereby assessment is done to find the business value of the applications. Other factors to be considered include the usability as well as the technical value and obsolescence (McKeen, 2015). The portfolio has to be adequately managed to facilitate productive organizational activities. The application management portfolio helps an organization to avoid redundant and duplication applications (Mller, 2015).
Thirdly, there is enterprise architecture that involves working with different stakeholders in the company to provide a holistic approach to organizational strategy. This means that enterprise architecture provides a platform for harmonizing business mission, processes as well as strategies in the company. The architecture should support IT operations with the aim of satisfying business needs (McKeen, 2015). Therefore, enterprise architecture can shape business demands and strategies by bringing into folding technology to help in the processes. Fourthly, there is the business-IT partnership in the company (Mller, 2015). The two should complement each other to realize the goal of the company. There should be a utility, business as well as technological partnerships. The business department can come up with the value for the organization while the IT counterpart can come up with the metrics and assessment of different products and services.
Finally, there is governance and Transparency, and this implies that leveraging different opportunities in the organization is crucial. Business cases should be developed to assess different processes and technological costs. Paying for novel developments in the role of the business and can include investors in the process. There should be a template for governance and value deliverance by including the business as well as IT management in decision-making processes. Transparency enhances a better understanding of the goals and strategies. There will be accurate information being passed across the organization (McKeen, 2015).
Initial Post 4:
The critical organizational enablers for effective demand management;
Strategic initiative management: Sufficient funding of critical IT-related investments is very primary for the success of any organization. Various projects usually need formal approval for them to be executed. The necessary step undertaken to achieve all these is by ensuring that there is effective management of various strategic initiatives. The process prioritizes the IT investments, among other issues that are forming part of organizational operations. Subsequently, the capability of a firm to increase the level of information technology demand is ascertained (McKeen & Smith, 2015). When strategic initiative management is not taken into consideration, the resultant repercussion is always daunting and severe, whereby there the organization fails to carry out capacity planning.
Governance and Transparency: Both governance and Transparency are vital enablers for any given organization to manage the demand for information technology efficiently. Proper governance contributes immensely to ensure that accountability for various anticipated gains can be associated with concerned stakeholders like the managers (McKeen & Smith, 2015). This enhances the IT demand since convenience is created. Moreover, Transparency acts as a door that allows for different parties in an organization to understand the concepts of information technology for improved decision making.
Application portfolio management: Another enabler of managing IT demand is application portfolio management (APM). It is essential to mention that APM help organizations in determining the contribution of various towards profitability and stability of the business (McKeen & Smith, 2015). The portfolio of applications that are already available in a given organization requires constant maintenance to enhance efficiency in that organization.
Enterprise architecture: Enterprise architecture is essential for effective management of IT demand by providing a link between the IT strategies and mission of an organization. It ensures that a common approach exists between the IT and the commercial operations (Gelinas, Sutton Jr & Federowicz, 2019). This is very critical since it promotes the practical usage of information technology in different dimensions of an organization.
Business-IT partnership: Business-IT partnership is equally important when it comes to IT demand management. By creating precise requirements for the business, ensuring effective leadership and relevant relationship management, this form of partnership enables commercial activities and projections to be undertaken and achieved(McKeen & Smith, 2015).
Initial Post 5:
Today I would like to discuss my views on crucial organizational enablers for effective demand management. Individuals contended that IT request the executives is anything but a solitary procedure that an association can distinguish. That is, because of the inquiry, no association could state, “We utilize this procedure.” Instead, the gathering proposed that request the executives is a created hierarchical ability that outcomes from five key authoritative empowering agents: vital activity the executives, application portfolio the executives, venture design, business-IT organization, and administration and straightforwardness.
These key variables work synergistically with the instruments recently portrayed to empower powerful interests on the board. Having a fruitful application portfolio, the board (APM) activity, for instance, does not ensure viably IT requests the board, but rather the nonappearance of APM would endanger the adequacy of interest the executives. Every one of these critical, authoritative empowering agents is depicted straightaway. Essential activity the executives is the hierarchical system for organizing and financing IT speculations at the undertaking level. Even though the attention is principally on huge optional/pivotal ventures, as the name infers, this procedure additionally settles enormous framework ventures. One association built up a vital undertaking office (SPO) with a command to give administration and course over big business-wide venture endorsements and wanting to guarantee these speculations are lined up with the association’s center methodologies(Kwok,2004).
This last view proposes how to approach the board request. Rather than requesting that IT associations go about as “traffic cops” or potentially forcing assents on capital spending to reduce request misleadingly, the financial matters approach is to arrange of strategies and techniques combined with sufficient administration to guarantee that the assignment of rare IT administrations goes to the most noteworthy worth chances (Cramm, 2004).
The objective is to catch and organize requests, allot assets dependent on business goals, and participate in tasks that convey business benefits. In any case, as is much of the time the case, what seems essential adroitly in actuality shows an imposing arrangement of difficulties. The center gathering talked about three usually utilized devices for interest the board and distinguished what they viewed as five key authoritative empowering influences for its compelling administration request.
Initial Post 6:
Demand management is not a single process that can be easily identified by an organization. One of the questions that business leaders ask them these days is how to manage demand effectively. There is no specific process that is used to manage demand since demand is a developed organizational capability that results from organizational enablers (McKeen &Smith, 2015). Five of these enablers are discussed below:
Strategic Initiative Management: This refers to an organizational mechanism for funding all IT investment at the enterprise level. This is an organizational enabler for effective demand management because it is a vital step that helps organizations to prioritize IT funding opportunities. This is important because it helps an organization to align its IT investments with its corporate strategy.
Application Portfolio Management: Application Portfolio Management or popularly known as APM, helps a company to balance its expenses and value (Fahrioglu & Alvarado, 2010). However, for this to work effectively, the existing portfolio of applications should be continually maintained in order to support organizational operations successfully. The most important thing about the maintenance of the application portfolio is that it creates a demand for IT resources.
Enterprise Architecture: Enterprise architecture will lead to effective demand management because it will create a room for working with stakeholders, leadership, and subject matter experts. All these come together to build a holistic view of the company’s information, processes, and strategy. The enterprise architect plays the role of linking the mission, strategy, and processes of the business to its IT strategy, and this leads to effective demand management (Seik, 2014).
Business-IT Partnership: Effective demand management requires a proper business-IT relationship. This means that an organization should align its business activities with its IT operations. This is necessary because it will help an organization to forecast the current and future demand for its goods and services. All IT organizations should be more proactive for them to become successful within their organizational service role (McKeen & Smith, 2015). The most crucial point to note here is that IT should be on the driver seat in demand management.
Governance and Transparency: There is a need for all organizations to shape the demand for IT resources. However, this cannot happen if business leaders do not take advantage of the vetting process. They should be ready to vet all IT proposals as well as pay for new development. The focus group insisted on proper governance and Transparency in the way things are done in the organization if, at all, managers want to manage demand effectively.
Initial Post 7:
In order to have effective demand management, five key aspects are needed from the organization, which are called organizational enablers. The five aspects are:
Strategic Initiative Management: The method that is used in order to prioritize and fund investments in IT at the level of the enterprise(McKeen & Smith, 2015). This would include looking at large infrastructure projects, significant strategic investments, as well as significant discretionary investments as well.
Application Portfolio Management: This helps in balancing expense against value, and also focuses on existing applications. The applications that have been discussed look atinvolvement in corporate profitability(Zhu et al., 2015). However, in many cases, they look at some non-financial criteria as well.
Enterprise Architecture: This would involve looking at building a holistic view of the strategy of the organization, as well as the information technology strategy, information, and processes(McKeen & Smith, 2015). It looks at working with stakeholders, subject matter experts, and leadership as well.
BusinessIT Partnership: The Business-IT Partnership involves looking at various factors that run counter to the traditional role of IT, which is to be an order-taker. There is a lack of establishment when it comes to the relationship between IT and business for most organizations, as well as a lack of mutual trust.
Governance and Transparency: There are two main governance factors in IT organizations(McKeen & Smith, 2015). The first is the vetting process, and the second one is the idea of chargeback. A great deal of Transparency is also seen in most organizations.
Initial Post 8:
Smartsheet (2020) defined demand management as “Demand Management is the ability to understand your customer’s patterns, anticipate their changing needs, and influence behaviors related to their demand for services.” IT demand management is not a simple process, but it is instead a response to how an organization can manage demand and what processes can be used in meeting this demand. There are five critical organizational enables for effective demand management as detailed below.
Strategic Initiative Management. McKeen, J.D., & Smith, H.A (2015) stated that “Strategic initiative management is the organizational mechanism for prioritizing and funding IT investments at the enterprise level. Although the focus is primarily on large discretionary/strategic investments, as the name implies, this process also adjudicates large infrastructure projects.” Without effective management of strategic initiatives, the organizations will not be able to prioritize IT funding opportunities at the enterprise level, which leaves them to align their IT investments with corporate strategy.
Application Portfolio Management. An organization with effective APM in place can reduce its technology-related operating costs and realize significant business value through reduced staff and maintenance requirements, reduced cycle times for process execution, thorough rationalization of their application portfolio with a 40 to 50 percent reduction in size and realized technology cost improvements through application retirement.
Enterprise Architecture. The key leverage point provided by enterprise architecture is the ability to promote enhanced business capability from a top-down perspective. Rather than depending solely on bottom-up demand from the lines of business, the enterprise architecture team at one organization was able to identify and champion enhanced business capabilities because of their ability to link the organizations technical architecture to business strategy.
Business-IT Partnership. A set of generic attributes for an effective ITbusiness partnership capable of shaping demand for IT resources are Relationship management, Leadership, Clear business requirements, and Marketing skills.
Governance and Transparency. Business managers continuously seek to leverage their business with technology, whether that happens by streamlining processes, , implementing enhanced information/reporting systems, or implementing dynamic pricing systems. Provided they have the money, and their only challenge is to win approval for the necessary IT resources.
Initial Post 9:
Demand management is an organizational capability built that results from five main organizational enablers like the strategic initiative management, portfolio application management, enterprise architecture, business-IT collaboration, and governance and accountability (McKeen & Smith, 2015). For example, having a good product portfolio management initiative (APM) does not guarantee effective management of IT demand. Still, the absence of APM will undoubtedly jeopardize the effectiveness of demand management. The DM Tools like PPM, service catalogs, and chargeback are also a few of the organizational enablers for effective demand management. Strategic initiative management is the regulatory framework for enterprise-level goal setting and funding of IT investments (Gligor, 2014). Although the emphasis, as the name suggests, is mainly on large strategic investments, this mechanism often adjudicates significant infrastructure projects.
The enterprise architect ties an organization’s business mission, strategy, and processes to its IT plan, and documents this using several architectural models or views that illustrate how an organization’s current and future needs can be met in a practical, sustainable, agile, and adaptable way. Business managers are actively trying to optimize their business with technology by streamlining procedures, providing self-service solutions, introducing enhance reporting systems, or introducing competitive pricing systems. Given they have the capital, their only challenge is winning approval for the IT resources needed. Recognizing the need for a framework for remedial governance is two different organizations that implemented similar strategies. Both required the implementation of a standard business case design, along with mandatory business case creation training for all business managers (Rexhausen & Kaiser, 2012). Both organizations have required the financial company to sign on to the acceptability of the benefits offered in all business cases.
Initial Post 10:
IT business organizations even struggle with controlling the balance between the demand and supply side of IT goods and services. The need for demand management is crucial in business. For managing production and delivery and effectively run the business has to capable of balancing orders for its goods and services with its capability to produce them in terms of scheduling and resource constraints. Some of the critical useful enable for demand management are as below:
Strategic Initiative Management: It is the structural mechanism for funding IT investments at the organizational level. Hence, the focus is mainly on strategic business investments, as this process also resolves substantial infrastructural projects.
Business Portfolio Management: It also emphasis on practical business applications which tries to maintain huge expense against the business value. These strategic applications can be highly assessed for their significant contribution to organizational profitability, and also on non-financial standards like usability, stability, and technical undesirability (Bustinza, Parry & Vendrell-Herrero, 2013).
Enterprise Architecture: It is the “continuous activity of explaining the essential elements of socio-technical business, their relationships with each other and with the environment, to recognize uncertainty and handle the transition. Enterprise architects collaborate with stakeholders in both technical and leadership matters to establish a comprehensive view of the policy, operation, knowledge, and information technology assets of the company.
Organizational-IT Partnership: Demand runs counter to the embedded role of ITto be a valid order taker to do whatsoever the business requires and whatever is directed its way. For many years, the accepted knowledge has been if the business wants it and is keen to pay for it, and then it is not the active role of the IT business organization to answer these business decisions.
Transparency and Governance: Organizations are standard in providing a mechanism for reviewing plans for IT programs. Besides, the company is usually supposed to pay for product technologies as well as a pro-rata portion of the business operating infrastructure costs (i.e., chargeback). These two modes of governance combine to shape the need for IT services (Mckeen, Smith, & Gonzalez, 2012, pp. 21-25).
Initial Post 11:
The concept of depth deals with the layers of security measures than can be implemented between assets that have to be protected from potential threats. There is an unsecured network around the assets. The assets need to be separated as much as possible from the insecure atmosphere. The number of layers there between the asset and not secure network is assessed as the depth of the security. Higher the depth higher is the separation from an unsecured network and thus higher the security of the asset. Therefore, to increase security, the depth must be increased. Each layer of the security should be different in order to avoid the same attack penetrate all the depth. Thus, all the depths representing layers should be of different security features.
Different types of layers that can be placed between an asset and not secure network:The physical security layer: It is the layer that protects the asset from the physical form of attacks. It is like building secure rooms, compound walls. The surveillance systems: It is used to secure the asset by constant monitoring of the premises of the asset to avoid a potential breaking to the system. It is used to create evidence for the trespassing of the security boundaries. The alert systems: It is used to alert the authorities about the attacks. Thus the authorities can take suitable actions.
Initial Post 12:
Defense-in-Depth (DiD) is meant to protect against and detect disruptive computer attacks such as viruses, worm attacks, and worm clones. It includes focused on low-level IT and operational protections to help protect critical infrastructure assets. The primary goal is to protect the data being stored by running the system at lower levels, including hardware, software, and application layer. Its contemporary alternatives do not directly attack the vulnerability of particular hardware or software implementations. DiD focus on three components: proactive, reactive, and joint (Kumar & Prasad, 2020).
Proactive defenses are addressed as soon as the threat actors found them. Resilient defenses address the failure modes or behaviors of the threat actors to persist after they are eliminated. Joint defense methods target both reactive and proactive attacks and are used to protect any sensitive data. DiD approach can be applied to any sector in which valuable assets are under threat. DiD focuses on creating back-doors for internal usage in a way that can be easily destroyed or replaced by someone with malicious intent (Kumar & Prasad, 2020).
Layered authentication: It is a method of authentication which is used to provide a standard and consistent method for providing authentication over an identity. This new process allows any sensitive data password, credit card, customer sensitive to be verified using both the passphrases and fingerprint of an employee or IT administrator. Layered authentication has traditionally been a method of authenticating multiple users that have known, mutually accessible and independent authentication for a given role or role group. The layered authentication architecture must be flexible and provide various levels of security over the different types of authentication, which are: internal/external/forged passwords, fingerprint, and voice recognition (Corallo, Lazoi & Lezzi, 2020).
and Spam Protection: Protect against viruses, worms by implementing PGP encryption into all our layered messages. Reduce spam, protect our employees from viruses, and protect our company from fraud, by using layered mail servers with layer filtering on top of it, that can block the viruses, phishing attacks, and spam with multiple layers of protection. This software protects against e-mail viruses, spam (Corallo, Lazoi, & Lezzi, 2020).
Layered Access Controls: Do not allow anyone accesses to that resource unless all resources that access that resource are layered. Access Restriction is access control that requires only that the resource is accessed, not accessed by that user. A layered Access Control does not specify a path to each access point (or any access, for that matter). Layered Access Control can be used to provide users with a graphical representation of the many possible ways to access a resource (Corallo, Lazoi & Lezzi, 2020).
Layered Encryption: Layered Encryption does not require the use of a private key and is, therefore, suitable for the use of devices with weak keys and programs that have only a rudimentary security capability. Layered EncryptionEncryption is more comfortable to implement and requires less memory and more CPU cycles. Layer encryption does not inhibit the development of new encryption algorithms that are more sophisticated (Corallo, Lazoi & Lezzi, 2020).
Layered Intrusion Detection: Lids provide a framework for addressing many challenges in intrusion detection. LID is a new type of intrusion detection system that detects potential intrusions inside organizations using a multitude of approaches. The core of the systems is a dedicated network, known as the LID product (Corallo, Lazoi & Lezzi, 2020).
Initial Post 13:
Perception of depth: ‘Defence in-depth’ is the most renowned term in cybersecurity. This is also known as the ‘The Castle Approach’ as this explains the different layers of security system used in the castles during the medieval period. Depth explains about the security systems and organization uses to protect its data (Skowroski, 2019). It introduces us to the fact of the multi-layered defense mechanism used in cybersecurity. Depth has proven in reducing cyber-attacks to the data. The concept of depth talks about multiple layers of data that a company puts into the system to avoid the intruder to reach the target or the original data. Depth is used as a significant protective element for the National Fundamental Assets.
Kinds of layers: With the growing networking business, the growth of cyber-crime has also increased (Corallo, Lazoi & Lezzi, 2020). It is not only that an organization requires security externally, but it also requires that includes cybersecurity or, in other words protecting the data of the organization. This data includes the fundamental assets of the organization, which is to be kept safe from intruders. The agenda behind multiple layers to be placed between an asset and an unsecured network is to protect the asset from cyber-crime. The layers are placed in order to avoid the intruder to reach the asset.
There are different kinds of layers among which management of assets, segmentation of the network, vulnerability assessment, and continuous monitoring are explained in this paper. Assessment management deals with the security of the network used by the organization. It lets the organizations know about the location of the asset, ensuring that each asset is kept under tracking. Segmentation of networks relates to the security of the network that the organization uses for its cyber activities. This lets the organization know about which network is secure for them to work on and which is not.
Vulnerability assessment explains the weakness in the security system and the susceptibility of any vulnerability or dangers and the degree to which they are harmful to the asset or target. This layer enables the organization to track upon dangers and work on it (Amoroso, 2012). Continuous monitoring deals with the continuous screening of data that the organization has access to. This layer ensures the organization with the screening or monitoring of the data and letting it keeping an update of any attack caused by an intruder. The regular monitoring of data leads to the safety of the organization.
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Concept of depth: Depth can be said as the various layers of security for protecting the assets of national fundament. The layers protect the fundaments from attacks, both internally and externally. The protection is provided by the approach of depth, also known as the “defense in depth.” This is also termed as the “Castel Approach” (Miloslavskaya & Tolstoy, 2019). This is said like this because, in this approach, the security system is layered like castles in the medieval period. Depth protects the target fundament by providing a strong shield in front of the fundament of the asset. Depth is a famous term in software engineering. Depth helps to provide security to the security software of different firms, keeping it safe from intruders or hackers.
Different kinds of layers placed between an asset and unsecured network
The schema related to the layers of defense is to set a series of elements that are protective in between the asset and the unsecured network. At times the layers are not much efficient, and hence combinations of different elements are used along with the layers to protect the asset (Jia, Komeily, Wang & Srinivasan, 2019). Although they intend on the series of layers is to enforce the policy over ways to the asset (target). If the asset (target) can be accessed from different entries/ entry points, the defense needs to circulate across all the points to enforce the security policy.
Research says that there are four different types of layers for the management of assets. They are asset management, network control of security, assessment vulnerability, continuous analysis of the data. Asset management can be defined as the continuous awareness or management of the devices. Devices here are referred to as PCs, software, and the hardware also. Network control of security can be referred to as the essential level. This begins with the analysis of the network. Prevention of unauthorized networks and blocking them is a prime layer. Blocking network traffic is also very important.
This relates to the segregation of the network. This relates to which network is secure for the asset and which is not. Assessment vulnerability deals with the degree of vulnerability which the asset must deal with. This process deals with the identification, quantification, and prioritization of the vulnerabilities that the system must deal with (Amoroso, 2012). Last but not least is the continuous analysis of the data. In other words, this can also be said as the monitoring of the data in order to keep a record of the data and its loopholes.
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The idea of depth: The term DEPTH is used for Multiple Layers of Security for protecting National Fundamental Assets. The multiple layers of security are used to protect the data from External and Internal Threats (Leonard, 2019). This approach of protecting the data using the Multiple Layers is known as “Defence in Depth.” The concept of this method is that one of the layers will be successfully able to defend the data. This method is also called the “Castle Approach” as it showcases the various layered defense mechanism used by Castles in Medieval Times.
Diverse kinds of layers placed: With time, the security threats are ever-growing. To contend with these threats, the companies are continually looking for new technologies for the protection of data, the system itself, and its networks. The majorly used layers are Antivirus Software (Hearn, 2019). An Antivirus Software is essential nowadays to protect the data as it is the First Line of Defence for any company dealing with data that needs to be stored securely. It helps in protecting the data from Viruses and Malware.
However, the products which are all signature-based can be exploited even if one has an Antivirus, so it is advised to use an Antivirus which has heuristic features for scanning suspicious patterns and activities. Management of assets. It refers to the management of devices (Assets) of a company, be it any hardware or software. The first thing that needs to be done for managing a company’s asset would be by assessing the weak areas, which can be a simple glass door. That can be potential entry points that can lead to theft.
So, it needs to be checked at a regular interval if these areas are in perfect condition and if there is any anomaly that needs to be fixed monitoring regularly. This is one of the essential layers of Security, but if ignored, this can lead to a considerable amount of losses. Keeping track of all the data at a regular interval and to check if everything is in perfect condition is known as continuous monitoring analysis of behavior. Every data and network has its different behavioral patterns, and any anomaly can be a breach in the system, which can lead to theft of secured data.
For this system to work correctly, the company needs to set a baseline for the NORMAL BEHAVIOUR of the data (Amoroso, 2012). Any deviation from normal can send an alert to the administrator and can automatically stop the breach from continuing any further.
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The concept of depth refers to countermeasures taken as a defense process against cyber-attacks on information systems. These countermeasures include a series of security protocols that are set up in such a way that when one is bypassed, the next one is activated (Tahoun & Khedri, 2017). This makes it harder for any intruding party that is a security threat to get to the asset, which is the information system. In this article, we are going to discuss different layers of security mechanisms that could be used to protect an asset in an unsecured network.
Network perimeter security. The network perimeter is the point that links to other unsecured networks. This is, therefore, the most suitable point to apply a security layer that serves as a first-line defense mechanism. A well-designed network perimeter has a firewall, which is a network security system that is configured to prevent any unauthorized access to a private network (Tahoun & Khedri, 2017). Other measures for perimeter security would include software for network monitoring and detection of malware.
Defense at the core of the network: Applying endpoint user protection policy by configuring security protocols either on the user’s device or the network’s servers. This blocks access by unauthorized or risky sign-ins that seek to steal information. The use of antivirus software to detect intrusion by malicious software plays a significant role in protecting user information as well. Encrypting the host’s hard drive also helps in keeping data safe, adding to the security level.
Host data defense. Since most cyberattacks target data, applying security measures that directly safeguard data is wise. One security measure would be data encryption. This ensures that even in the event of unapproved access to the data, it would be useless to the attackers. Another security action would be limiting access to the data, leaving access to only a few users.
Security is vital in protecting assets. Creating a reliable security plan needs several security mechanisms to increase its effectiveness. Layered security is, therefore, an excellent approach to cybersecurity measures, as it means having a more robust security plan. Protected assets translate to a reduced risk of information leaks and smooth running systems. In conclusion, the more the layers of security mechanisms, the more effective a security plan will be.
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Simply hiding vulnerabilities and other system architecture information is suggestable only at times of emergency. It is not advisable either at the stage of development or if we have enough and sufficient time to fix those. Because it is temporary that one can hide vulnerabilities for a long time. Once our vulnerabilities and software architecture are known to opponents or hackers, they start depriving us, or they might even copy our architecture if it is good.
Having vulnerabilities in our software is like providing a loophole to the hackers. So, if we simply hide them, it indirectly means we are permitting outsiders to access our software or to play with our software.
Later we cannot claim like it is our fruit, but others have it. So, at times of emergency, only hiding out vulnerabilities and system architecture information is convincible. Maximum try to avoid hiding. Be cautious while developing itself because it costs more than a hundred times during the time of maintenance than at the time of development.
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The Systems Architecture allows not only the architectural design but also the accompanying database schemas when they are accessible to the system architect. The Systems Architecture can be explained like the other two. The Models and Models in the Organizations are the Abstractions. The pre-defined working groups, customers, commands, and pre-written applications were discussed. These frameworks were being interpreted and exchanged.
Moreover, in a quick study, there is no way to avoid talking about them (Fairbanks, 2010). However, when a new vulnerability appears, the Framework Architecture seems incomplete, and the libraries are inaccessible to the application. Adding new APIs for application systems means effectively doing a completely new architecture that breaks backward compatibility of existing code.
The Systems Architects of the systems are essential in assuring that the teams employing the designs will know how to use them and maintain them properly (Fairbanks, 2010). The Systems Architect is a necessary complement to the team’s chief architect, especially in the web and cloud environments, and will have the responsibility of using systems services and helping the team to coordinate its needs. The Systems Architect’s role is to conceptualize, plan, and execute the development of complex systems. The team members will need the systems and configuration data, along with knowledge of how to use them effectively. The emergence of vulnerabilities in the industry gives cause for concern but is not news (Fairbanks, 2010).
Simply hiding vulnerabilities and other system architecture information is suggestible only at times of emergency. It is not advisable either at the stage of development or if we have enough and sufficient time and reasonable information to do so at a later stage of the development cycle (Jia & Gong, 2020). If we are already aware that a system has a vulnerability, then it is essential to highlight this. They can do this by limiting the details of the vulnerability and the system architecture to a minimum, taking care to prevent the knowledge from falling into the wrong hands, such as a hacker, but not disclosing that too early, when we have a higher chance of discovering the vulnerability and having the chance to prevent it from being exploited in the first place (Jia & Gong, 2020).
The reliable method to secure sensitive data from attacks is by blocking and closing the vulnerabilities. Similarly, significant programming errors are a problem in data storage and processing. For example, a faulty coding error in an encryption code might corrupt information on a disk or disk media. An error in the computer’s hardware might also result in data loss (Jia & Gong, 2020). In such cases, information protection is less important, and the source of the error is of secondary concern. An equal concern is when the security software does not protect data or systems from viruses and related attacks.
The security software should first be analyzed to determine whether it can protect data against common computer viruses and related attacks. The best way to secure data from attackers is by encrypting files and folders using a password or key file. Then the server will encrypt the entire folder with the crucial file that the client has. In short, decrypting the folder of the attacker is impossible. The attacker will not be able to see the encrypted file contents. The password is added as an argument to the encryption routine, and the same password is used with every encryption routine. The password is not just a passphrase for the encrypting process; it is the seed of the location where the encrypted files are stored for the encryption algorithms.
The EncryptionEncryption of a full folder is called full-file Encryption. Full-file EncryptionEncryption is the most reliable encryption method available today, though it is not recommended as it is computationally expensive. Besides, full-file Encryption might require switching from physical storage to a local computer, so it is not as safe to use on networked servers. Benefits of Full-File Encryption are advantageous when there is no other way to protect data in a private folder. If the folder is highly sensitive, or we are concerned about its authenticity, the full-file EncryptionEncryption could help to protect it (Jia & Gong, 2020).
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Vulnerabilities and system of defense: A vulnerability (Nickolov, Schibler, & Armijo, 2018) in the design of a crucial device is a machine’s weakness. A famous case is Heartbleed, but hundreds are found annually. Unpublished bugs are considered “zero-day” (Todd, Koster, & Wong, 2016), which are very useful as none are secured. They are quite remarkable. Someone will assault devices with impunity worldwide. Unless anyone finds one, he can either use it for protection or infringement. Protection includes alert and patching the seller. Many bugs are detected and fixed by themselves. Researchers and hackers discover others. The bug will not go away with a fix, although most people often secure themselves with updates.
The offense involves targeting someone with a flaw. The vendor does not realize that the protection is present until the perpetrators or hackers try to exploit the bug. That is the most critical zero-day. The service vendor impacted will figure outhow severe the bug should be exploited depends on the time and must create a fix to remove the bug. If an aggressive military cyber unit discovers the weakness or a cyber arms manufacturer, it keeps the weakness for cyber weapons. This vulnerability is held hidden. It will stay hidden for a long time if it is done stealthily. Unused, it should stay hidden before another human discovers it.
Suggestion on methods of defense: The statistically oriented methodology for zero-day vulnerabilities is focused on attack profiles built from historical data in real-time. This method typically does not sit well with shifts in data structures utilized for zero days. Any alteration in the design of zero-day vulnerability will allow a program to recognize a new profile. The primary subject of signature-based identification is polymorphic worm identification. Signature-related identification is focused on widely recognized signatures. The signatures protect against any changes in the original signature of vulnerability due to the attackers ‘ method of disguising the actual signature of the vulnerability.
This detection approach is often categorized into textual features, semantics, and vulnerability detections (Stein et al., 2019). System security based on actions is focused on the interpretation of the relationship of the exploit with the target. Although data will only be obtained with high activity sterilizers dependent on interpretation, typical behaviors can be studied, potential events forecast, and behavioral classes categorized. Interactions outside of common categories of conduct will be unclear and doubtful. This system will then identify and evaluate real-time potential zero-day exploits.
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Robust defense method: One might think that cybercrime is all about hackers stealing personal information from an organization or individuals. Nevertheless, it is not so. Cybercrimes, singlehandedly, pose to be the greatest threat to the digital world. It gets complicated with time-evolving in a way that becomes difficult for people to comprehend. Once the full picture of the ongoing cybercrimes is made available to the people, one might be tempted to completely cease the usage of the internet (Craig & Valeriano, 2016). Therefore, merely hiding the vulnerabilities of the system is not going to be of much help. Better measures are required to secure the system from third party intrusions from occurring.
Suggestions for methods
Some such measures are:
Using a full-service internet security suite can be of great help when it comes to the protection of the system. For example, Norton Security is known to provide real-time protection from all the existing malware, along with keeping the emerging malware at bay (Hendel & Lin-Hendel, 2016).
It is also essential to avoid weaker passwords and deliberately set up stronger passwords. Moreover, a time setting of passwords is not enough. They should be changed at least every two months. A password management application might also be used.
Since it is one of the prime tendencies of the cybercriminals to find out the loopholes in the software and attack precisely from those places, one must keep patching up these holes, employing continually updating the software.
It is essential to have proper management of the social media settings as well, whereby personal and private information can be kept under lockdown. The reason behind this is that revealing personal information can provide a clue to the hackers regarding the security questions that might be asked.
It is also essential to possess a strong password for encryption, along with a virtual private network. A VPN ensures well that is successfully able to monitor all the traffic leaving and entering a system. IT is helpful to keep track of whether any malware is taking entry into the system or not.
It is also necessary to talk to the children and family members about the proper usage of the internet. In organizations, all employees must be made aware of the negative impacts that the incorrect usage of the internet might have on the system. It is necessary to make everyone feel that the authorities are always open to any kind of discussion.
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Hiding Vulnerabilities – Worst Method:The building up of a system is an important thing that should be mentioned to other employees as well as the people who would be using it and the people whose data would be used in the particular database system. The architecture of the system is fundamental to know as without having complete knowledge about how the system works. Thus, hiding any basic knowledge about the system, including its vulnerabilities along with its architecture information, would just make the system face worse situations to deal with. This can ultimately result in the system completely shutting down without working.
Methods To Strengthen Information Database Architecture
There are several ways of strengthening the information system and protecting it from any sort of breaches or attacks and making its defense system secure. The first header which stands under strengthening the information system of an organization is that the data itself needs to be encrypted. In this way, the database which can contain sensitive data stays protected in the first level itself. Most attacks that are instantly or identified within some time are external, but there are several problems and shortcomings that an information system can face many threats from inside the organization itself.
These threats can be as simple as employees being unaware of specific threats that can come inside the organization through them and, thus, not taking precautions. The next option is to have installed a high level of security in the system, and that means making sure that there is proper security in the computers holding the database. Nevertheless, having them installed and leaving them like that will not ultimately ensure the strengthening of the information system, and it is needed to be made sure that they are kept updated and hence the Information database to stays intact.
When an organization knows that there are vulnerabilities in their system, instead of hiding them, they should rather focus on those more to search and then implement ways to seal any vulnerabilities that make the organization weaker in any way possible. The next step would be to further strengthen the database after eradicating the vulnerabilities. Finally, with advancing technology, some features have been introduced and are being used on a large scale. Implementing the Information System into the cloud would be the best way to protect the database as well as backup the data in case any incidents take place.
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Organizations must consider the need for information security. Data is a resourceful asset in an organization, and the information security team should ensure that there are no loopholes that might engender data loss or theft. Adversaries mainly aim at illegally accessing data and damaging it or using sensitive information to demand a ransom. Therefore, apart from concealing potential vulnerabilities, it is essential to set up effective information security models that will enhance data security without creating room for a data breach.
Access control is a model of ensuring an effective achievement of information defense. Encryption is a means of setting up passwords to reduce the chances of a cyberattack in an institution. Employees are provided with adequate knowledge and training on how to efficiently utilize passwords without compromising the security level of a system. The application of access control enables an active avoidance of phishing and malware attacks. The use of an application program interface enables a proper authentication and authorization of users of a system before granting any permission (Smith, 2018).
Regular monitoring of the security systems by the data security experts ensures that the set-up models remain functional, and detection of failure is timely. It is vital to ensure there is active employment of application security. The system ought to contain only relevant and verified hardware and software. Thus, there should be the elimination of insecure software that acts as a gateway to an attack from adversaries. The implementation of updated technologies ensures that sensitive data is not sent or lost inadvertently. A protected system should contain firewalls that monitor the type of data traffic flowing on the internet. Internet firewalls put a barrier between a safe browsing environment and an unsafe surfing zone; thus, information transferred when using the internet remains safe.
Thus, it is vital to incorporate the above methods to achieve adequate protection of information.
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Data acquisition is the process of sampling signals that measure real-world physical conditions and converting the resulting samples into digital numeric values that can be manipulated by a computer. Data acquisition is the process of sampling signals that measure real-world physical conditions and converting the resulting samples into digital numeric values that can be manipulated by a computer. Data acquisition systems, abbreviated by the acronyms DAS or DAQ, typically convert analog waveforms into digital values for processing.
The components of data acquisition systems include:
Sensors, to convert physical parameters to electrical signals.Signal conditioning circuitry, to convert sensor signals into a form that can be converted to digital values., to convert conditioned sensor signals to digital values(Aimone, 2018). Raw materials are materials or substances used in the primary production or manufacturing of goods. Raw materials are commodities that are bought and sold on commodities exchanges worldwide. Traders buy and sell raw materials in what is called the factor market because raw materials are factors of production, as are labor and capital.
A manufacturing company will record raw materials in the raw materials inventory account. When a company uses raw materials in production, it transfers them from the raw materials inventory to the . When a company completes its work-in-process items, it adds the finished items to the finished goods inventory, making them ready for sale. In the balance sheet, the cost of raw materials on hand as of the balance sheet date appears as a current asset. Companies may include raw materials in a single inventory line item on the balance sheet that also includes the cost of work-in-process and the finished goods inventory.
One of the most time-consuming parts of creating Website Toolkit is likely to be gathering raw materialsthat might have some of the materials need already or might need to get them from someone else. Starting the process now rather than later in the project means they will have enough time to pull everything together in the right format without causing delays to the overall timeline. (Pizza, 2016).
Need 23 Responses
o Need a minimum of 150 words for each response
o Need 2 PEER Reviewed APA References
In Response need to cover
o What did you learn from this posting?
o What additional questions do you have after reading the posting?
o What clarification do you need regarding the posting?
o What differences or similarities do you see between your idea and this posting?
Response 1: 150 words, Reference 1, Reference 2
Response 2: 150 words, Reference 1, Reference 2
Response 23: 150 words, Reference 1, Reference 2
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