Week 7: Course Project: Final
Liwen Chiang, Brody Burdett, Nevin Royce
Professor Amanda Andres
Table of Contents
Liwen Chiang – Solar Power Generation. 3
Brody Burdett – Wind Power Generation. 4
Nevin Royce – Energy Storage. 7
Matching renewable energy generators with storage, particularly batteries, are increasingly common as the price of energy storage continues to decrease. The U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) latest stock of electric generators shows that the number of solar and wind production sites co-located with batteries has increased from 19 paired sites in 2016 to 53 paired sites in 2019, this trend is expected to continue; another 56 facilities pairing will come online by the end of 2023.
Before the mid-1800s, wood was the only source of nearly all the nation’s energy needs. From the late 1800s to the present day, fossil fuels have been the leading sources of energy. Until the 1900s hydropower and wood were the most utilized renewable energy resource in the world. Since then, the percentage of total U.S. energy consumption from renewables has increased, and in 2019, the combined percentage of these renewable energy sources was greater than the combined share of wood and hydro energy before the 1900s. The U.S. consumption of renewable energy was nearly three times greater than in 2000.
Renewable energy plays an essential role in minimizing greenhouse gas emissions. Using renewable energy can cut the use of fossil fuels (shown below), which are the biggest generator of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions. The U.S. EIA figures that U.S. renewable energy consumption will continue to grow through 2050.Our objective is to make this abundance of energy information comprehensible and available to a wide audience, starting from the curious public to the research community to the decision-makers.
The early development of solar technologies starting within the 1860s was driven by an expectation that coal would soon become scarce. Charles Fritts installed the world’s first rooftop photovoltaic solar battery, using 1%-efficient selenium cells, on a replacement York City roof in 1884. However, development of solar technologies stagnated within the early 20th century within the face of the increasing availability, economy, and utility of coal and petroleum. In 1974, it had been estimated that only six private homes altogether in North America were entirely heated or cooled by functional solar energy systems. The 1973 oil embargo and 1979 energy crisis caused a reorganization of energy policies round the world and brought renewed attention to developing solar technologies. Deployment strategies focused on incentive programs like the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program within the US and therefore the Sunshine Program in Japan. Other efforts included the formation of research facilities within the US(NREL), Japan (NEDO), and Germany (ISE). Between 1970 and 1983 installations of photovoltaic systems grew rapidly but falling oil prices within the early 1980s moderated the expansion of photovoltaics from 1984 to 1996.
In the mid-1990s development of both, residential and commercial rooftop solar also as utility-scale photovoltaic power stations began to accelerate again thanks to supply issues with oil and gas, heating concerns, and therefore the improving economic position of PV relative to other energy technologies. Within the early 2000s, the adoption of feed-in tariffs—a policy mechanism that provides renewables priority on the grid and defines a hard and fast price for the generated electricity—led to a high level of investment security and to a soaring number of PV deployments in Europe.
For several years, worldwide growth of solar PV was driven by European deployment, but has since shifted to Asia, especially China and Japan, and to a growing number of nations and regions everywhere the planet, including, but not limited to, Australia, Canada, Chile, India, Israel, Mexico, South Africa, South Korea, Thailand, and therefore the US. In 2012, Tokelau became the primary country to be powered entirely by photovoltaic cells, with a 1 MW system using batteries for nighttime power. Worldwide growth of photovoltaics has averaged 40% per annum from 2000 to 2013 and total installed capacity reached 303 GW at the top of 2016 with China having the foremost cumulative installations (78 GW) and Honduras having the very best theoretical percentage of annual electricity usage which might be generated by solar PV (12.5%). The largest manufacturers are located in China. Concentrated solar energy (CSP) also began to grow rapidly, increasing its capacity nearly tenfold from 2004 to 2013, albeit from a lower level and involving fewer countries than solar PV. As of the top of 2013, worldwide cumulative CSP-capacity reached 3,425 MW.
In 2010, the International Energy Agency predicted that global solar PV capacity could reach 3,000 GW or 11% of projected global electricity generation by 2050—enough to get 4,500 TWh of electricity. Four years later, in 2014, the agency projected that, under its “high renewables” scenario, solar energy could supply 27% of worldwide electricity generation by 2050 (16% from PV and 11% from CSP). The typical cost factors for solar energy include the prices of the modules, the frame to carry them, wiring, inverters, labor cost, any land which may be required, the grid connection, maintenance and therefore the solar insolation that location will receive. Adjusting for inflation, it cost $96 per watt for a solar module within the mid-1970s. Process improvements and a really large boost in production have brought that figure right down to 68 cents per watt in February 2016, consistent with data from Bloomberg New Energy Finance. Palo Alto California signed a wholesale purchase contract in 2016 that secured solar energy for 3.7 cents per kilowatt-hour. And in sunny Dubai large-scale solar generated electricity sold in 2016 for just 2.99 cents per kilowatt-hour — “competitive with any sort of fossil-based electricity — and cheaper than most.” In 2020, the UNDP project “Enhanced Rural Resilience in Yemen” (ERRY) -which uses community-owned solar microgrids- managed to chop energy costs to only 2 cents per hour (whereas diesel-generated electricity costs 42 cents per hour).
Photovoltaic systems use no fuel, and modules typically last 25 to 40 years. Thus, capital cost’s structure most of the value of solar energy. Operations and maintenance costs for brand spanking new utility-scale solar plants within the US are estimated to be 9 percent of the value of photovoltaic electricity, and 17 percent of the value of solar thermal electricity. Governments have created various financial incentives to encourage the utilization of solar energy, like feed-in tariff programs. Also, Renewable portfolio standards impose a government mandate that utilities generate or acquire a particular percentage of renewable power no matter increased energy procurement costs. In most states, RPS goals are often achieved by any combination of solar, wind, biomass, landfill gas, ocean, geothermal, municipal solid waste, hydroelectric, hydrogen, or cell technologies.
In its 2014 edition of the Technology Roadmap: Solar Photovoltaic Energy report, the International Energy Agency (IEA) published prices for residential, commercial and utility-scale PV systems for eight major markets as of 2013. However, DOE’s SunShot Initiative has reported much lower U.S. installation prices. In 2014, prices continued to say no. The SunShot Initiative modeled U.S. system prices to be within the range of $1.80 to $3.29 per watt. Other sources identify similar price ranges of $1.70 to $3.50 for the various market segments within the U.S., and within the highly penetrated German market, prices for residential and little commercial rooftop systems of up to 100 kW declined to $1.36 per watt (€1.24/W) by the top of 2014. In 2015, Deutsche Bank estimated costs for little residential rooftop systems within the U.S. around $2.90 per watt. Costs for utility-scale systems in China and India were estimated as low as $1.00 per watt(Wikipedia,2021).
Solar power includes plants with among rock bottom water consumption per unit of electricity (photovoltaic), and also power plants with among the very best water consumption. Photovoltaic power plants use little or no water for operations. Life-cycle water consumption for utility-scale operations is estimated to be 45 liters (12 US gallons) per megawatt-hour for flat-panel PV solar. Only wind generation, which consumes essentially no water during operations, features a lower water consumption intensity.
Concentrating solar energy plants with wet-cooling systems, on the opposite hand, have the very best water-consumption intensities of any conventional sort of electrical power plant; only fossil-fuel plants with carbon-capture and storage may have higher water intensities. A 2013 study comparing various sources of electricity found that the median water consumption during operations of concentrating solar energy plants with wet cooling was 3.1 cubic meters per megawatt-hour (810 US gal/MWh) for power tower plants and three .4 m3/MWh (890 US gal/MWh) for trough plants. This was above the operational water consumption (with cooling towers) for nuclear at 2.7 m3/MWh (720 US gal/MWh), coal at 2.0 m3/MWh (530 US gal/MWh), or gas at 0.79 m3/MWh (210 US gal/MWh). A 2011 study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory came to similar conclusions: for power plants with cooling towers, water consumption during operations was 3.27 m3/MWh (865 US gal/MWh) for CSP trough, 2.98 m3/MWh (786 US gal/MWh) for CSP tower, 2.60 m3/MWh (687 US gal/MWh) for coal, 2.54 m3/MWh (672 US gal/MWh) for nuclear, and 0.75 m3/MWh (198 US gal/MWh) for gas(Wikipedia,2021). The solar power Industries Association noted that the Nevada Solar One trough CSP plant consumes 3.2 m3/MWh (850 US gal/MWh)(Wikipedia,2021). The difficulty of water consumption is heightened because CSP plants are often located in arid environments where water is scarce.
In 2007, the Congress directed the Department of Energy to report on ways to scale back water consumption by CSP. The next report noted that dry cooling technology was available that, although costlier to create and operate, could reduce water consumption by CSP by 91 to 95 percent. A hybrid wet/dry cooling system could reduce water consumption by 32 to 58 percent. A 2015 report by NREL noted that of the 24 operating CSP power plants within the US, 4 used dry cooling systems. The four dry-cooled systems were the three power plants at the Ivanpah solar energy Facility near Barstow, California, and therefore the Genesis solar power Project in Riverside County, California. Of 15 CSP projects under construction or development within the US as of March 2015, 6 were wet systems, 7 were dry systems, 1 hybrid, and 1 unspecified.
Although many older thermoelectric power plants with once-through cooling or cooling ponds use more water than CSP, meaning that more water passes through their systems, most of the cooling water returns to the water body available for other uses, and that they consume less water by evaporation. As an example, the median coal power station within the US with once-through cooling uses 138 m3/MWh (36,350 US gal/MWh), but only 0.95 m3/MWh (250 US gal/MWh) (less than one percent) is lost through evaporation(Wikipedia,2021). Since the 1970s, the bulk folks power plants have used recirculating systems like cooling towers instead of once-through systems. Since the majority of the PV panels is manufactured in China using silicon sourced from one particular region of Xinjiang, this raises concerns about human rights violations also as supply chain dependency.
Unlike solar which uses the sun’s energy, wind turbines generate power by converting wind’s kinetic energy to electrical energy. It works under the principle of turning its blades in a clockwise direction. The spinning of the turbines caused by the speed of wind activates the raceways connected to the gearbox which in turn triggers the nacelle to rotate. Wind energy is then transferred to the generator which converts it into electricity. Once the wind energy is transformed into electrical energy, it’s then transmitted to transformers where electrical energy is adjusted and ready for use.
Wind energy is a renewable source of energy and has become a major debatable concern of future emergencies as a result of this technology. The consideration was enacted to the potential challenge which may be as a result of wind energy emerging technology, applications, and preparedness in case they occur in coming years. Due to the increased demand for power for industrial use and other purposes, energy consumption has recently become part of our day-to-day needs. To satisfy this energy consumption need, discovering ways of coming up and developing renewable sources of energy which will work at low-cost rates and more efficiently will be taken into consideration. Another great concern is on improvising methods in which this form of energy could be stored to use whenever shortages of energy arise. In conjunction with this emerging issue, the use of solar energy is also suggested being used as another source of renewable energy, and it’s environmentally friendly. The big question which arises in this is what measurements are being taken to ensure that the arising changes in this will be well addressed.
Wind energy is associated with benefits and also disadvantages. The advantages of wind energy are as follows;
Disadvantages of wind energy wind:
Wind turbines are usually located in remote areas.
Once the power has been produced, it requires to be transported to the towns and the cities within the country. This calls for the installation of power lines from the plants to the cities. This activity is very expensive, and it posed the challenge of the expansion of wind plants since the amount attained is plowed back to facilitate the installation of power lines.
Although wind energy is associated with some disadvantages, its advantages are exceeding its disadvantages thus, we can conclude that wind energy is the best source of energy that can be adopted in most countries due to its economic friendly feature. What happens if the sun isn’t shining, or the wind isn’t blowing? This is where Energy Storage is needed.
Storing energy is vital to the distribution and usage for consumers. Being able to harness and control the distribution of energy has been a challenge for decades. As we advance through life and technology, so is the options for storing energy. Why is energy storage important? We need energy storage for the service industry, manufacturing, storing renewable energy, powering portable devices, and now the transportation sector. With adequate storage, cities can be powered by residual energy during peak hours of energy usage when solar and wind production cannot keep up with the demand. The problem is that storage has been limited since its existence.
One of the solutions to energy storage is pump-hydroelectric which started being built in the 1920s in the United States. This form of storage allows water to be released from a high level through a turbine that produces an electrical current which is distributed into the power grid. Some facilities can pump the water back up, but this in itself takes electricity, but it allows the power grid to be supplied with energy more often. These facilities consist of dams and run-of-river. As we move forward with renewable energy, pumped-hydro can still be used to balance out the electricity demand when the wind isn’t blowing and the sun’s not shining.
This type of energy storage holds the largest share of worldwide renewable energy production and can provide energy to millions of people depending on the size of the facility. The United States energy storage is around 25.2 GW which is around 94% of all energy storage in the country. Although this can be an alternative, these facilities still have an impact on the environment like changing wildlife habitats, blocking fish passages, and has a risk of dam failure which can cause catastrophic flooding.
Another form of storage that has been used is flywheel storage. This is where energy from solar or wind is used to spin a flywheel/ rotor located in a vacuum-sealed container. The kinetic energy that is produced from the flywheels revolutions is generated in energy which can be distributed into the energy grid when needed. Just like pumped-hydro, this form of energy storage can be used when it’s needed during peak hours. This form of storage can harness up to 16 kWh of energy. A great benefit of flywheel storage is that it has a low maintenance cost and lasts up to twenty years per flywheel. Because of this, it has less of an impact on affecting the environment, especially since there are no greenhouse admissions or toxic materials produced.
The previous forms of energy storage have been around for decades but seem to not have much advancement in the future. This is where battery storage comes in. Battery storage has been around since the 1800s but its potential in housing energy is still in the early stages. As technology advances at rapid speeds, battery storage is advancing just as fast. From smartphones having longer life to now having cars that can run for weeks without needing to be charged, battery storage is the future of energy storage.
Research predicts that solar could become one of the cheapest forms of electricity within the next decade. Solar PVs are a worthwhile investment, particularly for businesses (of any size) with high energy use, especially with rising electricity prices. How do these types of renewable energy save money? Solar panels for commercial use are cheaper now due to the widespread adoption, adding low maintenance and a reliable supply of energy, which is protected against price increases from grid-supplied electricity. The average payback length is about 4-8 years and the investment in solar can also be cash flow in as little as 2 years. With government subsidies and low-interest rates, solar is viewed as a low-risk investment.
Wind energy is environmentally friendly. This feature acts as the solution of another electricity-producing method. It does not emit harmful gases to the atmosphere; thus, it reduces the greenhouse effect. Conversely, wind power may result in contrary impacts on world life and some potential noise disturbances. However, these environmental and social-environmental impacts can be minimized or eliminated by a good selection of sites to put up the wind power plant. Due to the health issues which may be caused by this technology, the potential solution should be determined by evaluating the impact it extends to the residents. How can these types of energy benefit the environment?
Due to the predicted diverse impacts which may affect the current generation and other generations to come, power industries including wind energy-producing companies should undertake an ethical analysis of solutions induced to them by this project. This industry should also take into account that they are responsible for any impact on the people and even the earth’s ecology by compensating those affected. Other forms of energy production around the globe have been pointed to as hazardous to peoples, ecology, and wildlife. Their impacts have been diverse and more diverse as compared to the few impacts from wind energy industries since they expose harmful gases to the atmosphere leading to air pollution and global warming. Wind energy remains the greatest alternative source of energy that should be developed and put in use because it is the most environmentally friendly form of renewable energy produced on earth today.
Whether utilizing battery storage for consumer usage like using for homes or at a larger scale and coupling batteries with wind and solar energy, batteries have the potential to serve millions of people and it is more cost-effective compared to other forms of storage. Batteries help improve reliability because it allows for energy to be distributed on-demand and have the available energy for voltage support when a power grid has voltage drops. When it comes to renewable energy, solar and wind are at the forefront of the movement. These two energy producers can be used to charge batteries for energy and help provide power to millions of people with less impact on the environment. By building better batteries and renewable energy producers, we can eliminate the old ways of energy storage and create a better world for our future.
Experts predict the cost of the technology to more than half by 2040 contributing to the increase in renewable energy use. With the momentum gaining for electric cars and California Governor Gavin Newsom’s executive order that all new cars and passenger trucks sold in California be zero-emission by 2035. This and the electricity demand will only push up our requirements for renewables.
The U.S. government is considering adding more hydroelectric renewable energy sources in the past few decades than solar. Today, the focus is on utility-scale photovoltaic solar and the emerging accompaniment of co-located energy storage (Mazzetti, B., 2020). Older power plants like nuclear, coal, and even natural gas have fallen out of favor in the past few decades due to emissions and waste produced by these technologies.
Humanity, in its never-ending struggle to enhance its standard of living, has always consumed colossal amounts of electric power. A present-day estimate by National Geographic determined that we use 320 billion kilowatt-hours of energy a day. Fossil fuels have addressed our energy needs very efficiently, but they’re also non-renewable and quickly depleting. These fossil fuels have also contributed to greenhouse emissions and pollution. It’s time to seek out suitable and better replacements for fossil fuels. Scientists are researching newer and better sources of energy that have limited impact on the environment and reduce their contribution to global climate change, which is caused by the discharge of CO2 while burning fossil fuels. Can these sorts of energy ultimately replace fossil fuels?
Battery storage may be a significant technology within the world’s conversion to sustainable energy. Battery systems can hold a good range of services needed for the conversion, from providing frequency response, reserve capacity, black-start capability, and other grid services, to storing power in electric vehicles, upgrading mini-grids, and supporting “self-consumption” of rooftop solar power. Within the long run, batteries could support very high levels of variable renewable electricity, specifically by storing surplus energy and releasing it later, when the sun isn’t shining or the wind not blowing strongly enough (ESR 2030).
While pumped-hydro systems still dominate electricity storage (with 96% of installed storage capacity in mid-2017), battery systems for stationary applications have started growing rapidly. Wider deployment and therefore the commercialization of latest battery storage technologies have led to rapid cost reductions, notably for lithium-ion batteries, but also for high-temperature sodium-sulfur (“NAS”) and so-called “flow” batteries. In Germany, for instance, small-scale household Li-ion battery costs have fallen by over 60% since late 2014. Steadily improving economic viability has, in turn, opened new applications for battery storage.
Like solar photovoltaic (PV) panels a decade earlier, battery electricity storage systems offer enormous deployment and cost-reduction potential, consistent with this study by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). By 2030, total installed costs could fall between 50% and 60% (and battery cell costs by even more), driven by the optimization of producing facilities, combined with better combinations and reduced use of materials. Battery lifetimes and performance also will keep improving, helping to scale back the value of services delivered. Lithium-ion battery costs for stationary applications could fall to below USD 200 per kilowatt-hour by 2030 for installed systems.
Battery storage in stationary applications looks set to grow from only 2 gigawatts (GW) worldwide in 2017 to around 175 GW, rivaling pumped-hydro storage, projected to succeed in 235 GW in 2030. Within the meantime, lower installed costs, longer lifetimes, increased numbers of cycles, and improved performance will further drive down the value of stored electricity services.
Reduction of carbon emissions has been identified as a key to global climate change mitigation. To prevent heating from steadily increasing we might have to stop or drastically reduce the utilization of fossil fuels and rapidly increase the deployment of renewable energy production and storage capacity. We might get to triple our energy storage by 2050 to be sustainable. To try to do this we’d like to research better and faster ways to hurry up this process. Which renewable energy source is that the best?
At the instant, there’s nobody the right way. Nuclear energy, solar energy, and energy from wind are just a couple of the promising alternatives for a cleaner and greener future. With the mixture of energy storage, we will remove the necessity to burn fossil fuels to make energy from our homes and business. Recycling old and worn-out renewable products will be the last word achievement of sustainability. This may push us as humans forward to a clean and healthy future.
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-Panasonic USA. (2019, November 6). The past, present and future of high-efficiency solar panels. https://na.panasonic.com/us/green-living/past-present-and-future-high-efficiency-solar-panels
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