THE MANAGERS JOB [PowerPoint Slide 1]
The purpose of Chapter 1 is to provide an overview of the nature of managerial work. It could be argued that the entire book has a similar purpose. It is therefore necessary to touch upon topics in Chapter 1 that are covered again in later chapters. The chapter provides information on key managerial topics such as (a) the meaning of the term manager, (b) an overview of the process of management, (c) a discussion of managerial roles, and (d) a summary of the major developments in the evolution of management thought.
1. Explain what the term manager means and identify different types of manager.
2. Describe the process of management, including the functions of management.
3. Describe the various managerial roles.
4. Identify the basic managerial skills and understand how they can be developed.
5. Identify the major developments in the evolution of management thought.
Chapter Outline and Lecture Notes
Managers play a vital role in societythey pull together resources to get important things accomplished.
I. WHO IS A MANAGER? [PowerPoint Slide 2]
A manager is a person responsible for the work performance of group members. He or she has the formal authority to commit organizational resources. Management is the process of using organizational resources to achieve organizational objectives through the functions of planning, organizing and staffing, leading, and controlling.
A. Levels of Management [PowerPoint Slide 3]
Managerial jobs are typically divided into three levels:
1. Top-Level Managers. Top-level managers, or executives, are empowered to
make major decisions affecting the present and future of the firm. C-level manager
is a recent term to describe top-level managers because they usually have chief in
their title. About one percent of jobs in organizations are truly executive positions.
A few of the often found in large organizations are (a) chief
of staff, (b) chief commercial officer, and (c) chief privacy officer.
2. Middle-Level Managers.Middle-level managers are the layer between top- and first-level managers. Much of their work involves the coordination of work, and the dissemination of information. Middle-management jobs have declined in numbers as many organizations have downsized but they still play a major role in operating an organization.
3. First-Level Managers. Managers who supervise operatives are referred to as first-
level managersor supervisors. Supervisory jobs have been upgraded in many organizations, as a result of reducing the number of layers of management. The current emphasis on productivity and cost control has also upgraded the supervisory role. The vast majority of students taking this course have at one time reported to a first-level manager (supervisor).
II. TYPES OF MANAGERS [PowerPoint Slide 4]
Managerial jobs can be divided into functional and general managers, administrators, entrepreneurs and small-business owners, and team leaders.
A. Functional and General Managers
Functional managerssupervise the work of employees engaged in specialized activities, such as accounting and quality control. General managers are responsible for the work of several different groups performing a variety of functions. Company presidents and division heads are general managers. Key tasks of general managers include shaping the work environment and crafting a strategic vision.
An administrator is a manager who works in a public or nonprofit organization (including educational institutions) rather than in a business firm. The fact that individual contributors in nonprofit organizations are sometimes referred to as administrators often causes confusion.
C. Entrepreneurs and Small-Business Owners
Entrepreneursare people who begin a new business based on an innovative idea for a product or service. A small-business owner operates a small business that is not necessarily entrepreneurial (innovative). A major characteristic of both entrepreneurs and small-business owners is their passion for their work.
Recent research has identified three roles, or activities, within entrepreneurial work that arouse passion: opportunity recognition, venture creation, and venture growth.
D. Team Leaders
A team leader coordinates the work of a small group of people, while acting as a facilitator and catalyst. Team leaders are found at many organizational levels, and are also referred to as project managers, process managers, and task-force leaders.
All of the managerial jobs describe above vary considerably on the demands placed on the job holder, such as some CEO jobs more demanding and stressful than others.
III. THE PROCESS OF MANAGEMENT [PowerPoint Slide 5]
Managerial work can be regarded as a process, a series of actions that brings about a goal. To achieve that objective, the manager uses resources and carries out the four managerial functions.
A. Resources Used by Managers [PowerPoint Slide 6]
Managers use four types of resources:
1. Human Resources. Human resources are the employees needed to get the job done.
2. Financial Resources. Any money used by the organization is classified as a
3. Physical Resources. Physical resources are the firms tangible goods and real estate,
including raw materials, office space, production facilities, office equipment, and vehicles.
4. Information Resources. Data used to accomplish the job are classified as
As originally designated by Peter Drucker, managers are knowledge workers and
therefore rely heavily on information resources. Managers must convert data into information which is not an easy task.
B. The Four Managerial Functions [PowerPoint Slide 7]
The classical, or standard, functions of management remain a useful way of
1. Planning. Planning involves setting goals and figuring out ways of reaching them.
Planning is the central function of management.
2. Organizing and Staffing. Organizing is the process of making sure the necessary
human and physical resources are available to carry out a plan and achieve
organizational goals. Staffing involves ensuring there are the necessary human
resources to achieve organizational goals. Hiring is a typical staffing activity. (Organizing and staff is now often referred to as talent management.)
3. Leading. Leading is the managerial function of influencing others to achieve
organizational objectives. Leadership is the interpersonal aspect of management.
According to Henry Mintzberg, effective leaders develop the sense of community or
shared purpose that is essential for cooperative effort in all organizations. Leaders
4. Controlling. Controlling is the managerial function of ensuring that performance conforms to plans. Controlling involves comparing actual performance to a
predetermined standard. Computerized controls are widely used.
Managerial level influences how much time managers spend on the four managerial functions. Executives spend more time on strategic (high-level and long-range) planning than do middle- or first-level managers. First-level managers spend the most time in of employees.
IV. THE SEVENTEEN MANAGERIAL ROLES [PowerPoint Slides 8, 9]
A role is an expected set of activities or behaviors stemming from ones job. Roles are another important way of understanding managerial work.
The two planning roles are strategic (long-range and high-level) planner and operational (day-by-day) planner.
B. Organizing and Staffing
Five roles fit the organizing function: organizer, liaison, staffing coordinator, resource
allocator,and task delegator. Talent management is included in the organizing and
Eight roles are part of the leadership function: motivator and coach,figurehead, spokesperson, negotiator, team builder, team player, technical problem solver, and entrepreneur.
The monitoring role is virtually identical to controlling. The disturbance handler role can also be classified as a controlling role because it brings disruptions back in line.
E. Managerial Roles Currently Emphasized [PowerPoint Slide 10]
Managerial work has shifted substantially away from the controller and director role to
that of coach, facilitator, and supporter. Many managers today work as partners with
team members to jointly achieve results.
F. The Influence of Management Level on Managerial Roles [PowerPoint Slide 11]
A managers level of responsibility influences which roles he or she is likely to engage in most frequently. For example, the most important roles for top-level managers are liaison, spokesperson, figurehead, and strategic planner.
G. Management as a Practice [PowerPoint Slides 12, 13]
Management is more of a practice, than a science or profession. Managers sometimes
make use of systematic knowledge, yet they also rely on the intuition that stems from experience. Management is not a profession in the sense of being a licensed occupation such as law, medicine, or electrician. Another point of view is that to gain public trust, management needs to become a profession that follows an ethical code.
Management could become more professionalized with the use of evidence-based management, the systematic use of the best available evidence to improve managerial practice. To use this approach, managers would rely on both scientific evidence as well as local business evidence.
V. THE FIVE MANAGERIAL SKILLS [PowerPoint Slides 14, 15]
To be effective, managers need to possess technical, interpersonal, conceptual, diagnostic,
and political skills.
A. Technical Skill
Technical skill involves an understanding of and proficiency in a specific activity that
involves methods, processes, procedures, or techniques. Budget preparation is an example of a technical skill.
B. Interpersonal Skill
Interpersonal (or human relations) skill is the managers ability to work effectively as a
team member and to build cooperative effort in the unit. Communication skills are an
example of an important interpersonal skill. An important subset of interpersonal skills
for managers is multiculturalism, or the ability to work effectively and conduct business
with people from different cultures. Many managers at all levels ultimately fail because
their interpersonal skills are not good enough for the demands of the job.
C. Conceptual Skill
Conceptual skill is the ability to see the organization as a total entity (the big picture). Strategic planning requires conceptual skill. The need for conceptual skill continues to grow.
D. Diagnostic Skill
Diagnostic skill involves investigating a problem and then choosing a course of action to solve it.
E. Political Skill
Political skill is the ability to acquire the power necessary to reach objectives. Managers
high in political skill possess a keens sense of astuteness and understanding of people.
Negotiating and forming alliances are examples of political skills. Political skill should
be regarded as a supplement to job competence and other basic skills.
VI. DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGERIAL SKILLS [PowerPoint Slides 16, 17]
Experience and educationincluding formal trainingare both important for the
development of management skills. You can learn managerial concepts from a book, or
lecture, and then apply them using the general learning model: (1) conceptual
information and behavioral guidelines, (2) conceptual information demonstrated by
examples, (3) skill-development exercises, (4) feedback on skill utilization, or
performance, from others, and (5) frequent practice of what you have learned, including
making adjustments from feedback.
We emphasize again that experience is important for the development of management skills. Yet experience is likely to be more valuable if it is enhanced with education.
VII. THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT
Management as a practice has an almost unlimited history. As a formal study,
management began in the 1700s as part of the Industrial Revolution.
A. The Classical Approach to Management [PowerPoint Slide 18]
The classical approach to management encompasses scientific management and
administrative management. The focus of scientific management was on the application of scientific methods to increase individual workers productivity.
Administrative managementwas concerned primarily with how organizations should be managed and structured. One of the key contributions of the classical school has been to study management from the framework of planning, organizing,
leading, and controlling. Alfred D. Chandler J., the Harvard University business historian, was a key figure in promoting the importance of the classical approach to management. His famous thesis is that a firms structure is determined or chosen by its strategy; other wise the firm becomes inefficient.
B. The Behavioral Approach [PowerPoint Slide 19]
The behavioral approach to management emphasizes improving management through the psychological makeup of people. The theme of the behavioral (or human resources) approach is to focus on understanding people. Three direct cornerstones of the human resources approach are the Hawthorne studies, Theory X and Theory Y, and Maslows need hierarchy.
1. The Hawthorne Studies. Workers in the Hawthorne experiments reacted
positively because management cared about them. The Hawthorne effect is the tendency of people to behave differently when they receive attention because they respond to the demands of the situation.
2. Theory X and Theory Y of Douglas McGregor[PowerPoint Slide 20]
Theory X is a set of traditional assumptions about people. Managers who hold
these assumptions are pessimistic about workers capabilities. They believe that workers dislike work, seek to avoid responsibility, are not ambitious, and must be supervised closely. Theory Y is an alternative and optimistic set of assumptions.
3. Maslows need Hierarchy[PowerPoint Slide 21]
Maslow suggested that humans are motivated by efforts to satisfy a hierarchy
of needs, ranging from basic needs to those for self-actualization, or reaching
ones potential. The need hierarchy prompted managers to think about ways of satisfying a wide range of worker needs to keep them motivated.
C. Quantitative Approaches to Management [PowerPoint Slide 22]
The quantitative approach to management is a group of methods to managerial
decision making that is based on the scientific method. Frequently used quantitative tools and techniques of the quantitative approach include statistics, linear programming, network analysis, decision trees, and computer simulations. Frederick Taylors work provided the foundation for the quantitative approach to management. However, operations research stemming from World War II is the true beginning of quantitative approaches to management.
D. The Systems Perspective [PowerPoint Slide 23]
The systems perspective is a way of viewing problems more than a specific approach to management. It is based on the concept that an organization is a system, or an entity of interrelated parts. If you adjust one part of the system, other parts will be affected automatically. From a systems viewpoint, the organization also interacts with the outside world, transforming inputs (such as money and material) into outputs (such as products and services). Two other systems concepts are important. Entropy is the tendency of a system to run down and die if it does not receive fresh inputs from its environment. Synergy means that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
E. The Contingency Approach [PowerPoint Slide 24]
The contingency approach of management emphasizes that there is no one best
way to manage people or work. A method that leads to high productivity or morale in one situation may not achieve the same results in another. The contingency approach is derived from the study of leadership and organization structures. Common sense also contributes heavily to the contingency approach.
F. The Information Technology Era and Beyond [PowerPoint Slide 25]
The information technology era began in the 1950s with data processing. By the late
1980s, the impact of information technology and the Internet began to influence how
managers manage work and people. Two economists report that the impact of the Internet on business is similar to the impact of electricity at the beginning of the 20th century.
The history of management is being written each year in the sense that the practice of management continues to evolve. An example of a leading-edge approach to management is evidence-based management whereby managers translate principles based on best evidence into management practices (as described above).
INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY [PP Slide 1]
The purpose of Chapter 2 is to help managerial workers better understand two related prominent forces in their environment: the internationalization of management and cultural diversity. Understanding should lead to improved ability to deal with the challenges presented by these pervasive forces. To achieve its purpose, the chapter describes multinational corporations, along with cultural diversity, both in the international and domestic realms.
1. Describe the importance of multinational corporations in international business.
2. Recognize the importance of sensitivity to cultural differences in international enterprise.
3. Identify major challenges facing the global managerial worker.
4. Explain various methods of entry into world markets.
5. Pinpoint success factors in the global marketplace, and several positive and negative
aspects of globalization.
6. Describe the scope of diversity and the competitive advantage of a culturally diverse
7. Summarize organizational practices to encourage diversity.
Chapter Outline and Lecture Notes
I. INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT [PowerPoint Slide 2]
The internationalization (or global integration) of business and management exerts a major
influence on the managers job. The impact of global integration is dramatized by the fact
that many complex manufactured products are built with components from several countries. The internationalization of management is part of the entire world becoming
more global (the world is flat). One challenge is to work well with organizations and people from other countries.
A. The Multinational Corporation [PowerPoint Slide 3]
The heart of international trade is the multinational corporation (MNC), a firm with
units in two or more countries in addition to its own. An MNC has headquarters in one
country and subsidiaries in others. The transnational corporation is a special type of
MNC that operates worldwide without having one national headquarter. Operations in
other countries are not regarded as foreign operations. Globalization has resulted in
many large companies merging with each other, leaving a small number of
B. Trade Agreements Among Countries [PowerPoint Slide 4]
Four agreements have facilitated international trade.
1. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
NAFTA establishes liberal trading relationships among the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Many companies have benefited from NAFTA, yet some labor unions believe the agreement has resulted in some job losses. By the tenth anniversary of NAFTA, at least . S. workers had been displaced.
2. The Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA)[PowerPoint Slide 5]
The United States-Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement
(CAFTA) grants six countries, so far, relatively open access to American markets
for their goods, while at the same time facilitating U. S. entry into their markets. The ultimate hope of CAFTA is a 34-nation Free Trade Agreement covering all countries in the Western Hemisphere except Cuba.
3. The European Union (EU)[PowerPoint Slide 6]
The European Union is a 27-nation alliance that virtually turns member countries into a single marketplace for ideas, goods, services, and investment strategies. The EU trades with member nations, the United States and Canada, and other countries throughout the world.
The Schengen Agreement ended passport control and customs checks at many borders have been eliminated creating a single space where EU citizens can travel, work, and invest. Eleven countries use the euro as their currency.
4. The World Trade Organization (WTO)[PowerPoint Slide 7]
The World Trade Organization liberalizes trade among many nations throughout the world and attempts to lower trade barriers. According to the most favored nation clause, each member country is supposed to grant all other member countries the most favorable treatment it grants any country with respect to imports and exports. An important function of the WTO is to settle disputes between two countries. The World Trade Organization now has about 153 member countries, accounting for about 95 percent of world trade.
A concern about facilitating global trade is that trade liberalization leads to continuous job cuts and downward pressure on wages in industrialized nations. The counterargument is that free trade, in the long run, creates more job opportunities by facilitating exports.
C. Global Outsourcing as Part of International Trade [PowerPoint Slide 8]
Trade agreements facilitate sending work overseas. Outsourcing refers to the practice
of hiring an individual or another company outside the organization to perform work.
Global outsourcing is frequently referred to as offshoring. The number of industries immune to outsourcing is shrinking. Many building components are outsourced, as so are aspects of financial and legal work. A major force behind global outsourcing is the pressure discount retailers such as Wal-Mart, Target, and Dollar General exert on manufacturers to keep their prices low.
1. The Case for Global Outsourcing[PowerPoint Slide 9]
Sending jobs overseas can create new demand for lower-priced goods, ultimately leading to new jobs in the United State, with consumer electronics being an example. As in the argument for free trade, slashing production costs through global outsourcing can help a company become more competitive. Outsourcing can also lead to reciprocity from the overseas country receiving the work For example, an
overseas company that receives work from the U.S. might hire American workers for its U.S. operations.
2. The Case against Global Outsourcing [PowerPoint Slide 10]
Many Americans believe that offshoring is responsible for the permanent loss of
jobs in the United States as well as slow job creation. Yet, more job loss appears to stem from increased productivity than from offshoring. Another concern is that
American employers can offer low wages to domestic employees because their
work could be sent overseas. Outsourcing call centers to foreign countries can result
in language barriers that make it difficult to resolve customer problems.. Another
negative factor with outsourcing is that its true cost savings may be elusive.
C. Sensitivity to Cultural Differences [PowerPoint Slide 11]
The guiding principle for people involved in international enterprise is sensitivity to
cultural differences. Cultural sensitivity is the awareness of local and national customs and their importance in effective interpersonal relationships. Being culturally sensitive helps a person become a multicultural worker who enjoys learning about other cultures. Candidates for foreign assignments generally receive training in the language and customs of the country they will work in. Cultural differences, such as with respect to negotiating the need for change, can also be important to learn.
A study showed that personality factors as well as cultural understanding contribute to expatriate effectiveness. Expatriates in Hong Kong, Japan, and Korea who function well are emotionally stable, extraverted, and open to new experiences. Cross-cultural competencies such as being able to focus on tasks and people are also important for expatriate success.
II. CHALLENGES FACING THE GLOBAL MANAGERIAL WORKER [PP Slide 12]
Global managerial workers face many challenges, as described next.
A. Developing Global Leadership Skills [PowerPoint Slides, 12, 14]
Managerial workers occupying leadership positions need to develop global leadership
skills,the ability to deal effectively with people from other cultures. Having such skills
is a combination of cultural sensitivity and leadership skills. Welcoming other cultures is helpful. Global leadership skills also include understanding how well management principles from ones own culture transfer to another. For example, most Western companies are willing to switch suppliers to cut costs, whereas Japanese executives frequently have long-term or personal relationships with key people at their suppliers.
B. Currency Fluctuations [PowerPoint Slide 12]
The international manager may have to respond to changes in the value of currencies in the home country and elsewhere. If the currency of a country suddenly gains in value, it may be difficult to export products made in that country. However, when a countrys currency weakens versus the currency of other countries, it is easier to export goods because the good are significantly less expensive and competitive in other countries. A weak U.S. dollar helps close the trade gap.
C. Balance of Trade Problems [PowerPoint Slide 12]
A concern at the broadest level to an international manager is a country’s balance of
trade,the difference between exports and imports in both goods and services. Many people believe that it is to a countrys advantage to export more than it imports. Yet in 2009, the total international deficit in goods and services for the United States was
$375 billion. For goods, the deficit was $485 billion; for services, the surplus was $110 billion. A concern about the U. S. trade deficit is that it contributes to the loss of domestic manufacturing jobs. Yet the free traders point out that the U.S. consumer can purchase low-price imports.
D. Human Rights Violations, Corruption, and Violence [PowerPoint Slide 12]
Trading in countries with human rights violations can create problems. Many
customers protest, yet doing business in country that violates human rights might help
raise the standard of living of its citizens. The subject of human rights violations is
complicated and touchy. Amnesty International contends that the U.S. violates many
human rights of its own including the use of foreign and domestic sweatshops, and the
Another ethical and legal problem the international manager faces is dealing with
corruption by foreign officials. A string of officials may demand payments to facilitate
allowing foreigners to conduct business or speed an approval of an operating license. A
life-threatening risk for U. S. multinational companies is for its employees to be
trapped in violent acts in the overseas country, including terrorist attacks.
E. Culture Shock [PowerPoint Slide 13]
Another problem for the international manager is culture shock, a group of physical
and psychological symptoms that can develop when a person is abruptly placed in a
foreign culture. Culture shock contributes to the relatively high rate of expatriates who
return home early because they are dissatisfied with their assignments. Another
potential contributor to culture shock is that the expatriate may work in one time zone
while contacts in company headquarters work in a time zone with a time difference of
six or more hours.
F. Differences in Negotiating Style [PowerPoint Slide 13]
International workers may also have to use a different negotiation style. American
negotiators, for example, often find that they must be more patient, use a team
approach, and avoid being too informal. One study showed that differences in cultural
values and norms between U. S. and Japanese negotiators influence negotiating tactics, and the outcome of negotiation. When people negotiate with others form their own culture, they are more likely to achieve mutual gains.
G. Piracy of Intellectual Property Rights and Other Merchandise [PowerPoint Slide 13]
A major challenge facing the international business manager is that considerable
amounts of revenue may be lost because firms in other countries might illegally copy
his or her product. Among those products widely reproduced illegally are fine watches,
perfume, DVDs, CDs, high-status, brand-name clothing, and software. The global cost of software piracy is estimated at about $40 billion annually. In recent years, the Chinese government has invested resources in protecting intellectual property rights which includes forbidding software piracy.
H. Coping with Dangerous and Defective Products [PowerPoint Slide 13]
Yet another potential risk for the international worker is coping with dangerous and or
defective imported products. The international manager may be involved in such activities as assisting with a product recall, and dealing with angry customers, government agencies and attorneys. A more widespread problem of coping with dangerous and defective products is the unintentional important of infected bugs and plants.
III. METHODS OF ENTRY INTO WORLD MARKETS [PowerPoint Slide 15]
Six methods of entering the international market are as follows:
2. Licensing and franchising.
3. Local assembly and packaging. Components rather than finished products are
shipped to company-owned facilities in other countries.
4. Strategic alliance and joint ventures. (In a joint venture, the companies in alliance produce, warehouse, transport, and market products. A joint venture is therefore a special type of strategic alliance.)
5. Direct foreign investment.
6. Global startup. The global startup is a small firm that comes into existence by
serving an international market. By so doing the firm circumvents the stages described above. Selling through the Internet facilitates a global start-up.
Exporting offers the least protection for the company doing business in another
country. Direct foreign investment is the best way to protect the companys
IV. SUCCESS FACTORS IN THE GLOBAL MARKETPLACE [PowerPoint Slide 16]
Following the right strategies and tactics can improve chances for success in the global
A. Think Globally, Act Locally [PowerPoint Slide 16]
Local representatives behave as though their primary mission is to serve the local customer. A major aspect of thinking globally, yet acting locally is for the multinational corporation to compete successfully against well-established, well-managed domestic (local) companies. .
B. Recruit and Select Talented Nationals [PowerPoint Slide 16]
A major success factor in building a business in another country is to hire talented
citizens of that country to fill important positions. After the host-company nationals
are hired, they must be taught the culture of the parent company. Staffing in other
countries may require a modification of U. S. ideas about good candidates, such as
Chinese candidates being more subdued than Americans. Home country employees
also have to be of high caliber to compete well in the international arena.
C. Hire or Develop Multicultural Workers [PowerPoint Slide 16]
Multiculturalism enhances acceptance of your firm by overseas personnel and
customers. Speaking the native language helps. To help workers and their family members become multicultural, many companies offer cultural training. An important insight for workers is that although the United States and Northern Europe are task oriented, most other cultures are relationship oriented.
D. Research and Assess Potential Markets [PowerPoint Slide 16]
Acquire valid information about the firms target markets. Trade statistics usually
provide a good starting point. which overseas
marketsand consumer reactionwould fit its retailing model. Nevertheless, the
company has done poorly in a few foreign markets.
E. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Globalization [PowerPoint Slide 17]
Globalization may be inevitable and desirable, yet for many managers, business
owners, and individual workers, the internationalization of the workplace has created more problems than opportunities. Exhibit 2-4 outlines the major pros and cons of globalization. For example, productivity grows when a company exercises its comparative advantage. However, millions of Americans have lost jobs due to imports or production shifts abroad.
V. THE SCOPE AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF MANAGING DIVERSITY
The globalization of business requires that the managerial worker deal effectively with
people from other countries, and different cultural groups within one’s own company and country. Diversity refers to a mixture of people with different group identities within the same work environment. Demographic diversity refers to the mix of group characteristics in the organization.Cultural diversity refers to the mixture of cultures and subcultures to which the organization’s workforce belongs.
A. The Scope of Diversity [PowerPoint Slide 18]
The true meaning of valuing diversity is to respect and enjoy a wide range of cultural
and individual differences. To be diverse is to be different in some measurable way (whether or not the difference is visible). The diversity umbrella is supposed to
include everybody in an organization.
Working well with different generations has become an important part of both cultural and demographic diversity in organizations, with the goal of people of all ages working well together. Another cultural and demographic group being emphasized for full inclusion in the workforce is people who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT).
B. The Competitive Advantage of Diversity [PowerPoint Slide 19]
Encouraging diversity is socially responsible, and also brings a competitive
advantage to a firm.
1. Managing diversity well offers a marketing advantage, including increased
sales and profits.
2. Effective management of diversity can reduce costs. (Job satisfaction may
increase thereby reducing turnover and absenteeism.)
3. Companies with a favorable record in managing diversity are at a distinct
advantage in recruiting talented people.
4. Workforce diversity can provide a company with useful ideas for favorable
publicity and advertising.
5. Workforce diversity, including using the services of a culturally diverse
advertising agency, can help reduce cultural bloopers and hidden biases.
6. Workforce heterogeneity may also offer a company a creativity advantage.
The implication for managers is that diversity initiatives should be explained in terms of tangible business purposes to achieve the best results.
C. Potential Problems Associated with Diversity [PowerPoint Slide 20]
Cultural diversity initiatives are usually successful in assembling heterogeneous
groups, but the group members do not necessarily work harmoniously. When group
members are supportive toward each other, the benefits of group diversity such as
more creative problem solving will be forthcoming. . .
VI. ORGANIZATIONAL PRACTICES TO ENCOURAGE DIVERSITY [PP Slide 21]
Organizations can take several initiatives to manage diversity well.
A. Corporate Policies Favoring Diversity. [PowerPoint Slide 21]
Many companies formulate policies that encourage and foster diversity. To create a culturally and demographically diverse organization, some companies monitor recruitment and promotions to assure that diverse people are hired and promoted into key jobs.
B. Employee Network Groups [PowerPoint Slide 21]
An employee network group is composed of employees throughout the company who affiliate on the basis of a group of characteristics such as race, ethnicity, sexual
orientation, or physical ability status. Group members have similar interests, and share information about getting ahead. Sometimes the network groups might help in product development, such as the Frito-Lay group development the Doritos Guacamole Flavored Tortilla Chips.
C. Diversity Training [PowerPoint Slides 21, 22]
Diversity trainingattempts to bring about workplace harmony by teaching people how to get along better with diverse work associates. Quite often the program is aimed at minimizing open expressions of racism and sexism. All forms of diversity training center around increasing peoples awareness of and empathy for people who are different from themselves. An essential part of relating more effectively to diverse groups is to empathize with their point of view.
A study found that diversity training is likely to have a strong impact on retaining people of color when the program is tied to business strategy and the CEO is committed to the program.
D. The English Language as a Force for Unity [PowerPoint Slide 23]
To compete globally, international workers have to communicate effectively with each other. As a consequence, more and more European business firms are making English their official language. In many Asian countries also, English is widely used in business. The Internet is another force encouraging the use of English.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more