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To cite this article: Timothy Mitchell (2009) Carbon democracy, Economy and Society, 38:3,
399-432, DOI: 10.1080/03085140903020598
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States that depend upon oil revenues appear to be less democratic than other states.
Yet oil presents a much larger problem for democracy: faced with the threats of oil
depletion and catastrophic climate change, the democratic machineries that emerged
to govern the age of carbon energy seem to be unable to address the processes that
may end it. This article explores these multiple dimensions of carbon democracy, by
examining the intersecting histories of coal, oil and democracy in the twentieth
century. Following closely the methods by which fossil fuels were produced,
distributed and converted into other forms of socio-technical organization, financial
circulation and political power, the article traces ways in which the concentration and
control of energy flows could open up democratic possibilities or close them down;
how connections were engineered in the post-war period between the flow of oil and
the flows of international finance, on which democratic stability was thought to
depend; how these same circulations made possible the emergence of the economy
and its unlimited growth as the main object of democratic politics; and how the
relations among forms of energy, finance, economic knowledge, democracy and
violence were transformed in the 196774 oildollar Middle East crises.
Keywords: democracy; oil; coal; Middle East.
Fossil fuels helped create both the possibility of twentieth-century democracy
and its limits. To understand the limits, I propose to explore what made the
emergence of a certain kind of democratic politics possible, the kind I will call
carbon democracy. Before turning to the past, however, let me mention some of
the contemporary limits I have in mind.
In the wake of the US invasion of Iraq in 2003, one of those limits was
widely discussed. A distinctive feature of the Middle East, many said, is the
regions lack of democracy. In several of the scholarly accounts, the lack has
Timothy Mitchell, Department of Middle East and Asian Languages and Cultures and the
School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, 420 West 118th Street,
New York, NY 10027, USA. E-mail: [email protected]
Copyright # 2009 Taylor & Francis
ISSN 0308-5147 print/1469-5766 online
Economy and Society Volume 38 Number 3 August 2009: 399432
something to do with oil. Countries that depend upon petroleum resources for
a large part of their earnings from exports tend to be less democratic.1
However, most of those who write about the question of the rentier state or
the oil curse, as the problem is known, have little to say about the nature of oil
and how it is produced, distributed and used.2 They merely discuss the oil
rents, the income that accrues after the petroleum is converted into
government revenue.3 So the reasons proposed for the anti-democratic
properties of oil that it gives government the resources to relieve social
pressures, buy political support or repress dissent have little to do with the
ways oil is extracted, processed, shipped and consumed, the forms of agency
and control these processes involve or the powers of oil as a concentrated
source of energy.
Ignoring the properties of oil itself reflects an underlying conception of
democracy. This is the conception shared by the American democracy expert
who addressed a local council in southern Iraq: Welcome to your new
democracy, he said. I have met you before. I have met you in Cambodia.
I have met you in Russia. I have met you in Nigeria. At which point, we are told,
two members of the council walked out (Stewart, 2006, p. 280). It is to see
democracy as fundamentally the same everywhere, defined by universal
principles that are to be reproduced in every successful instance of democratization, as though democracy occurs only as a carbon copy of itself. If it fails, as it
seems to in oil states, the reason must be that some universal element is missing
Failing to follow the oil itself, accounts of the oil curse diagnose it as a
malady located within only one set of nodes of the networks through which oil
flows and is converted into energy, profits and political power in the
decision-making organs of individual producer states. Its aetiology involves
isolating the symptoms found in producer states that are not found in non-oil
states. But what if democracies have not been carbon copies, but carbon-based?
Are they tied in specific ways to the history of carbon fuels? Can we follow the
carbon itself, the oil, so as to connect the problem afflicting oil-producing
states to other limits of carbon democracy?
The leading industrialized countries are also oil states. Without the energy
they derive from oil their current forms of political and economic life would not
exist. Their citizens have developed ways of eating, travelling, housing
themselves and consuming other goods and services that require very large
amounts of energy from oil and other fossil fuels. These ways of life are not
sustainable, and they now face the twin crises that will end them: although
calculating reserves of fossil fuels is a political process involving rival calculative
techniques, there is substantial evidence that those reserves are running out;4
and in the process of using them up we have taken carbon that was previously
stored underground and placed it in the atmosphere, where it is causing
increases in global temperatures that may lead to catastrophic climate change
(IPCC, 2007).5 A larger limit that oil represents for democracy is that the
400 Economy and Society
political machinery that emerged to govern the age of fossil fuels may be
incapable of addressing the events that will end it.
To follow the carbon does not mean substituting a materialist account for the
idealist schemes of the democracy experts, or tracing political outcomes back to
the forms of energy that determine them as though the powers of carbon were
transmitted unchanged from the oil well or coalface to the hands of those who
control the state. The carbon itself must be transformed, beginning with the
work done by those who bring it out of the ground. The transformations
involve establishing connections and building alliances connections and
alliances that do not respect any divide between material and ideal, economic
and political, natural and social, human and non-human or violence and
representation. The connections make it possible to translate one set of
resources and powers into another. Understanding the relations between fossil
fuels and democracy requires tracing how these connections are built, the
vulnerabilities and opportunities they create and the narrow points of passage
where control is particularly effective.6 Political possibilities were opened up or
narrowed down by different ways of organizing the flow and concentration of
energy, and these possibilities were enhanced or limited by arrangements of
people, finance, expertise and violence that were assembled in relationship to
the distribution and control of energy.
Like mass democracy, fossil fuels are a relatively recent phenomenon. The
histories of the two kinds of forces have been connected in several ways. This
article traces four sets of connections, the first two concerned with coal and the
rise of mass politics in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the
second two with oil and organizing limits to democratic politics in the midtwentieth century.
The first connection is that fossil fuel allowed the reorganization of energy
systems that made possible, in conjunction with other changes, the novel forms
of collective life out of which late-nineteenth-century mass politics developed.
Until 200 years ago, the energy needed to sustain human existence came
almost entirely from renewable sources, which obtain their force from the sun.
Solar energy was converted into grain and other crops to provide fuel for
humans, into grasslands to raise animals for labour and further human fuel,
into woodlands to provide firewood and into wind and water power to drive
transportation and machinery (Sieferle, 2001).
For most of the world, the capture of solar radiation in replenishable forms
continued to be the main source of energy until perhaps the mid-twentieth
century.7 From around 1800, however, these renewable sources were steadily
replaced with highly concentrated stores of buried solar energy, the deposits of
carbon laid down 150 to 350 million years ago when the decay of peat-bog
forests and of marine organisms in particular oxygen-deficient environments
Timothy Mitchell: Carbon democracy 401
converted biomass into the relatively rare but extraordinarily potent deposits of
coal and oil.8
The earths stock of this capital bequeathed to mankind by other living
beings, as Sartre (1977, p. 154) once described it, will be exhausted in a
remarkably short period most of it, by some calculations, in the 100 years
between 1950 and 2050 (Aleklett & Campbell, 2003; Deffeyes, 2005).9 To give
an idea of the concentration of energy we will be exhausting, compared to the
plant-based and other forms of captured solar energy that preceded the
hydrocarbon age: a single litre of petrol used today needed about twenty-five
metric tons of ancient marine life as precursor material, and organic matter the
equivalent of the earths entire production of plant and animal life for 400 years
was required to produce the fossil fuels we burn in a single year (1997 figures
from Dukes, 2003; Haberl, 2006).
Compared to these concentrated hydrocarbon stores, solar radiation is
a weak form of energy. However, it is very widely distributed. Historically its
use encouraged relatively dispersed forms of human settlement along rivers,
close to pastureland and within reach of large reserves of land set aside as
woods to provide fuel. The switch to coal over the last two centuries enabled
the concentration of populations in cities, in part because it freed urban
populations from the need for adjacent pastures and woods. In Great Britain,
the substitution of wood by coal created a quantity of energy that would have
required forests many times the size of existing wooded areas if energy had still
depended on solar radiation. By the 1820s, coal freed, as it were, an area of
land equivalent to the total surface area of the country. By the 1840s, coal was
providing energy that to obtain from timber would have required forests
covering twice the countrys area, double that amount by the 1860s and double
again by the 1890s (Sieferle, 2001; Pomeranz, 2000). Thanks to coal, Great
Britain, the United States, Germany and other coal-producing regions could
be catapulted into a new energetic metabolism, based on cities and large-scale
We associate industrialization with the growth of cities, but it was equally an
agrarian phenomenon and a colonial one. Production on a mass scale required
access to large new territories for growing crops, both to supply the food on
which the growth of cities and manufacturing depended and to produce
industrial raw materials, especially cotton. By freeing land previously reserved
as woodland for the supply of fuel, fossil energy contributed to this agrarian
transformation. As Pomeranz (2000) argues, the switch to coal in north-west
Europe interacted with another land-releasing factor, the acquisition of colonial
territories. Colonies in the New World provided the land to grow industrial
crops. They also generated a direct and indirect demand for European
manufacturing, by creating populations of enslaved Africans who were
prevented from producing for their own needs. Europe now controlled surplus
land that could be used to produce agricultural goods in quantities that,
together with arrangements of the slave plantation, allowed the development of
coal-based mass production, centred in cities.
402 Economy and Society
This relationship between coal, colonization and industrialization points to
the first set of connections between fossil fuels and democracy. Limited forms
of representative government had developed in parts of Europe and its settler
colonies in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. From the 1870s, however,
the emergence of mass political movements and organized political parties
shaped the period that Eric Hobsbawm calls both the age of democratization
and the age of empire.11 The mobilization of new political forces depended
upon the concentration of population in cities and in manufacturing, enabled
in part by the control of colonized territories and enslaved labour forces, but
equally associated with the forms of mass collective life made possible by
organizing the flow of unprecedented concentrations of non-renewable stores
Controlling carbon channels
Fossil fuels are connected with the mass democracy of the late nineteenth and
early twentieth centuries in a second way. Large stores of high-quality coal were
discovered and developed in relatively few sites: central and northern England,
South Wales, the Ruhr Valley, Upper Silesia and Appalachia.12 Most of the
worlds industrial regions grew above or adjacent to supplies of coal (Pollard,
1981; Rodgers, 1998, p. 45). However, coal was so concentrated in carbon
content that it became cost-effective to transport energy overland or on
waterways in much greater quantities than timber or other renewable fuel
supplies. In Britain, the first Canal Acts were passed to dig waterways for the
movement of coal (Jevons, 1865, pp. 878). The development of steam
transport, whose original function was to serve coal-mining and which in turn
was fuelled by coal, facilitated this movement. Large urban and industrial
populations could now accumulate at sites that were no longer adjacent to
sources of energy. By the end of the nineteenth century, industrialized regions
had built networks that moved concentrated carbon stores from the underground coal face to the surface, to railways, to ports, to cities and to sites of
manufacturing and electrical power generation.
Great quantities of energy now flowed along very narrow channels. Large
numbers of workers had to be concentrated at the main junctions of these
channels. Their position and concentration gave them, at certain moments,
a new kind of political power. The power derived not just from the organizations they formed, the ideas they began to share or the political alliances they
built, but from the extraordinary concentrations of carbon energy whose flow
they could now slow, disrupt or cut off.
Coal-miners played a leading role in contesting labour regimes and the powers
of employers in the labour activism and political mobilization of the 1880s
onwards. Between 1881 and 1905, coal-miners in the United States went on
strike at a rate about three times the average for workers in all major industries,
and double the rate of the next highest industry, tobacco manufacturing.
Timothy Mitchell: Carbon democracy 403
Coal-mining strikes also lasted much longer than strikes in other industries.13
The same pattern existed in Europe. Podobnik (2006) has documented the wave
of industrial action that swept across the worlds coal-mining regions in the later
nineteenth century and early twentieth century, and again after the First World
The militancy of the miners can be attributed in part to the fact that moving
carbon stores from the coal seam to the surface created unusually autonomous
places and methods of work. The old argument that mining communities
enjoyed a special isolation compared to other industrial workers, making their
militancy a kind of colonial revolt against far-removed authority, misrepresents this autonomy (Kerr & Siegel, 1934, p. 192). More recent accounts stress
the diversity of mining communities and the complexity of their political
engagements with other groups, with mine-owners and with state authorities
(Church, Outram & Smith, 1991; Fagge, 1996; Harrison, 1978). As Goodrich
had argued, the miners freedom was a product not of the geographical
isolation of coal mining regions from political authority but of the very
geography of the working places inside a mine (1925, p. 19). In the traditional
room-and-pillar method of mining, a pair of miners worked a section of the coal
seam, leaving pillars or walls of coal in place between their own chamber and
adjacent chambers to support the roof. They usually made their own decisions
about where to cut and how much rock to leave in place to prevent cave-ins
(Podobnik, 2006, pp. 825). Before the widespread mechanization of mining,
Goodrich wrote, the miners freedom from supervision is at the opposite
extreme from the carefully ordered and regimented work of the modern
machine-feeder (1925, p. 14).15
The militancy that formed in these workplaces was typically an effort to
defend this autonomy against the threats of mechanization or against the
pressure to accept more dangerous work practices, longer working hours or
lower rates of pay. Strikes were effective, not because of minings colonial
isolation, but on the contrary because of the flows of carbon that connected
chambers beneath the ground to every factory, office, home or means of
transportation that depended on steam or electric power.
The power of the miner-led strikes appeared unprecedented. In Germany,
a wave of coal-mining strikes in early 1889 and again in December of that year
shocked the new Kaiser, Wilhelm II, into abandoning Bismarcks hard-line
social policy and supporting a programme of labour reforms (Canning, 1996,
pp. 1303). The Kaiser convened an international conference in March 1890
that called for international standards to govern labour in coal-mining,
together with limits on the employment of women and children. By a curious
and significant coincidence, as the New York Times reported, on the same day
the conference opened in Berlin, by far the biggest strike in the history of
organized labour was launched by the coal-miners of England and Wales. The
number of men, women and children on strike reached the bewildering figure
of 260,000. With the great manufacturing enterprises of the north about to
404 Economy and Society
run out of coal, the press reported, the possibilities of a gigantic and ruinous
labor conflict open before us.16
Large coal strikes could trigger wider mobilizations, as with the violent strike
that followed the Courrie`res colliery disaster of 1906 in northern France, which
helped provoke a general strike that paralysed Paris.17 The commonest pattern,
however, was for strikes to spread through the interconnected industries of
coal-mining, railways, dock workers and shipping.18 By the turn of the
twentieth century, the vulnerability of these connections made the general strike
a new kind of weapon.
A generation earlier, in 1873, Engels had rejected the idea of a general strike
as a political instrument, likening it to ineffectual plans for the holy month,
a nationwide suspension of work, that the Chartist movement had preached in
the 1840s (Engels, 1939 ). Workers lacked the resources and organization
to carry out a general strike, he argued. Were they to acquire such resources and
powers of organization, he said, they would already be powerful enough to
overthrow the state, so the general strike would be an unnecessary detour.
Thirty years later, Rosa Luxemburg developed an alternative view. After
witnessing the wave of strikes that paralysed Russia in the 1905 Revolution, she
argued in The mass strike (1906) that workers could now organize a revolution
without a unified political movement, because isolated economic struggles were
connected into a single force. This force, she wrote, flows now like a broad
billow over the whole kingdom, and now divides into a gigantic network of
narrow streams (1925 , ch. 4).19 Luxemburgs language tried to capture
the dispersed yet interconnected power that workers had now acquired.
However, her use of a fluvial metaphor missed the fact that it was railways and
canals, more than streams and tides, and the coal and coal-based products they
carried that assembled workers together into a new kind of political force.
During the First World War, US and British coalfields and railways were
placed under the direction of government administrators, and coal and rail
workers were in some cases excused conscription and integrated into the war
effort. Strikes were reduced, but the critical role of these energy networks
became more visible (Corbin, 1981; Reifer, 2004). After the war, from the West
Virginia coal strikes of 1919 to the British General Strike of 1926, one can trace
the development of the triple alliance, of mine workers, dockers and
railwaymen, with the power to shut down energy nodes. The dispersed energy
systems of solar radiation had never allowed groups of workers this kind of
The strikes were not always successful, but the new vulnerability
experienced by the owners of mines, railways and docks, together with the
steel mills and other large manufacturing enterprises dependent on coal, had
its effects. In 1914, the massacre of striking coal-miners in Ludlow, Colorado,
caused a political crisis that threatened the power of the Rockefeller family,
which owned the mines (Chernow, 1998, pp. 57190). Rockefeller hired
Mackenzie King, a Harvard-trained political economist who had helped
Timothy Mitchell: Carbon democracy 405
resolve more than forty coal, railway, shipping and other strikes as Canadian
minister of labour, to devise a new method of managing workers (King, 1918,
p. 13). Kings report on the crisis, Industry and humanity: A study in the
principles underlying industrial reconstruction (1918), explained the new vulnerability:
If the recent past has revealed the frightful consequences of industrial strife, do
not present developments all over the world afford indications of possibilities
infinitely worse? Syndicalism aims at the destruction by force of existing
organization, and the transfer of industrial capital from present possessors to
syndicates or revolutionary trades unions. This it seeks to accomplish by the
general strike. What might not happen, in America or in England, if upon
a few days or a few weeks notice, the coal mines were suddenly to shut down,
and the railways to stop running! … Here is power which, once exercised,
would paralyze the … nation more effectively than any blockade in time of war.
(King, 1918, pp. 4945)
Kings report provided a blueprint for the corporate management of labour.
After working as an industrial relations consultant to Rockefeller and other
firms, he returned to politics in Canada, where he served as prime minister for
twenty-two years and became the architect of the countrys welfare state.20
The difficult fight against the resources of a labour movement that, for the
period of a few decades, could threaten a countrys carbon energy networks
helped impel the owners of large industrial firms and their political allies into
accepting the forms of welfare democracy and universal suffrage that would
weaken working-class mobilization.
From coal to oil
After the Second World War, the coal-miners of Europe again appeared as the
core of a militant threat to corporatist democratic politics. As US planners
worked to engineer the post-war political order in Europe, they came up with
a new mechanism to defeat the coal-miners: to convert Europes energy system
from one based on coal to one based predominantly on oil. Western Europe
had no oilfields, so the additional oil would come from the Middle East.21
Scarce supplies of steel and construction equipment were shipped from the
United States to the Persian Gulf, to build a pipeline from eastern Saudi
Arabia to the Mediterranean, to enable a rapid increase in oil supplies to
Europe. The diversion of steel and of Marshall Plan funds for this purpose was
justified in part by the need to undermine the political power of Europes coalminers (Forrestal, 19419, p. 2005, 1951, Vol. 910, 6 January 1948; Painter,
1984, p. 361).22
Like coal, oil gave workers new kinds of power. Decisive industrial action
was organized at Baku in 1905 in the Russian-controlled Caucasus, in the
Maracaibo strikes of 1922 and 1936 in Venezuela, in the 1937 Mexican oil
406 Economy and Society
strike and in the 19456 strike in Iran. These conflicts were a training ground
for later confrontations. A young labour activist in Baku, Joseph Stalin, later
said that the advanced organizing skills of the Azeri oil workers and the
intensity of their conflict with the oil industrialists gave him an experience that
qualified him as a journeyman for the revolution.23
However, the material qualities and physical locations of oil made things
different from with coal. Since it comes to the surface driven by underground
pressure, either from the water trapped beneath it or the gas above it, oil
required a smaller workforce than coal in relation to the quantity of energy
produced.24 Workers remained above ground, under the continuous supervision of managers. Since the carbon occurs in liquid form, pumping stations
and pipelines could replace railways as a means of transporting energy from the
site of production to the places where it was used or shipped abroad. Pipelines
were vulnerable, as we will see, but not as easy to incapacitate through strike
actions as were the railways that carried coal. In addition, diesel oil and petrol
are lighter than coal and vaporize more easily, and their combustion leaves little
residue compared to the burning of coal. For these reasons, as Lewis Mumford
they could be stowed away easily, in odds and ends of space where coal could not
be placed or reached: being fed by gravity or pressure the engine had no need
for a stoker. The effect of introducing liquid fuel and of mechanical stokers for
coal, in electric steam plants, and on steamships, was to emancipate a race of
galley slaves, the stokers.
(Mumford, 1934, p. 235)
The relative lightness and fluidity of oil made it feasible to ship it in large
quantities across oceans. Historically, very little coal crossed oceans.25 In 1912,
Britain exported one-third of its coal and was responsible for two-thirds of the
worlds seaborne exported coal. But almost 90 per cent of its exports went to the
adjacent regions of Europe and the Mediterranean (Jevons, 1915, pp. 67684).26
Over the course of the twentieth century, the proportion of coal exported
internationally stabilized at about 15 per cent.27 By contrast, from the 1920s
onwards about 60 to 80 per cent of oil was exported (Podobnik, 2006, p. 79). So
much oil was moved across oceans that, by 1970, 60 per cent of world seaborne
cargo consisted of oil (Parker, 2001; UNCTAD, 2007, table 5, p. 8).28
Compared to carrying coal by rail, moving oil by sea eliminated the labour of
coal-heavers and stokers, and thus the power of organized workers to withdraw
their labour from a critical point in the energy system. Transoceanic shipping
operated beyond the territorial spaces governed by the labour regulations and
democratic rights won in the era of widespread coal and railway strikes. In fact,
shipping companies could escape the regulation of labour laws all together (as
well as the payment of taxes) by resorting to international registry, or so-called
flags of convenience, removing whatever limited powers of labour organizing
might have been left.
Timothy Mitchell: Carbon democracy 407
Unlike railways, ocean shipping was not constrained by the need to run on
a network of purpose-built tracks of a certain capacity, layout and gauge. Oil
tankers frequently left port without knowing their final destination. They
would steam to a waypoint, and then receive a destination determined by the
level of demand in different regions. This flexibility carried risks (in March
1967 it was one of the causes of the worlds first giant oil spill, the Torrey
Canyon disaster, which helped trigger the emergence of the environmental
movement, a later threat to the carbon fuel industry), but it further weakened
the powers of local forces that tried to control sites of energy production.29 If
a labour strike, for example, or the nationalization of an industry affected one
production site, oil tankers could be quickly re-routed to supply oil from
alternative sites. In other words, whereas the movement of coal tended to
follow dendritic networks, with branches at each end but a single main
channel, creating potential choke points at several junctures, oil flowed along
networks that often had the properties of a grid, like an electrical grid, where
there is more than one possible path and the flow of energy can switch to avoid
blockages or overcome breakdowns.
These changes in the way forms of fossil energy were extracted, transported
and used made energy networks less vulnerable to the political claims of those
whose labour kept them running. At the same time, the fluidity and flexibility of
oil presented new problems for those who owned or managed the production
sites and distribution networks. It was no longer sufficient to control production
and distribution in one particular region. Since oil could move easily from one
region to another, petroleum companies were always vulnerable to the arrival of
cheaper oil from elsewhere. This vulnerability, seldom recognized in accounts of
the oil industry, set further limits to the democratizing potential of petroleum.
Market competition destroyed profits and ruined companies and had if
possible to be prevented. The difficulty of transporting coal across oceans
meant that coal producers faced competition only within their own region.
They prevented it either by forming cartels, as in Germany and the United
States, or creating new organizations to regulate production, such as the postwar European Coal and Steel Community. In Britain, producers were ruined by
competition and taken over by the state.
Oil companies faced similar threats, but on a transoceanic scale. The two
world wars helped restrict the supply and movement of oil, but between the
wars both domestic firms in the United States, where most world oil was still
produced, and the handful of oil companies seeking to control international
trade needed a new set of mechanisms to limit the production and distribution
of energy. The devices they developed included government quotas and price
controls in the United States, consortium agreements to restrict the development of new oil discoveries in the Middle East and cartel arrangements to
govern the worldwide distribution and marketing of oil. These controls shaped
the development of the transnational oil corporation, which emerged as a longdistance machinery for maintaining limits to the supply of oil (Mitchell, 2002a).
One could think of this development as the formation of what Barry (2006) calls
408 Economy and Society
a technical zone, a set of coordinated but widely dispersed regulations,
calculative arrangements, infrastructures and technical procedures that render
certain objects or flows governable.30
After the Second World War, new devices were added to this machinery for
the production of scarcity. There were two important techniques for
transforming post-war carbon energy abundance into a system of limited
supplies. The first was the new apparatus of peacetime national security.31
The war had given US oil companies the opportunity to reduce or shut down
most of their production in the Middle East. In 1943, when Ibn Saud demanded
funds to compensate for the loss of oil revenues, the oil companies persuaded
Washington to extend Lend Lease loans to the Saudi monarch. These payments
for not producing oil were presented as something necessary for Americas
national security. They marked the start of a long relationship in which Saudi
collaboration in restricting the flow of oil was organized as though it were
a system for protecting the oil against others.
The second method of preventing energy abundance involved the rapid
construction of lifestyles in the United States organized around the consumption of extraordinary quantities of energy. In January 1948, James Forrestal,
recently appointed as the countrys first Secretary of Defense under the new
National Security Act, discussed with Brewster Jennings, President of SoconyVacuum (later renamed Mobil Oil), how unless we had access to Middle East
oil, American motorcar companies would have to design a four-cylinder
motorcar sometime within the next five years (1951, 6 January 1948, p. 2005).32
In the following years the US car companies helped out by replacing standard
six-cylinder engines with the new V8s as the dream of every middle-class
family.33 As Forrestal spoke, the Morris Motor Company in Britain was
preparing to challenge the successful four-cylinder Volkswagen Beetle with the
, Citroen to do the same with the two-cylinder 2CV
and the German engine maker BMW with its first post-war passenger car, the
one-cylinder Isetta 250. The European vehicles outsold and outlasted most of
the badly-engineered American models. But the latter helped engineer
something larger carbon-heavy forms of middle-class American life that,
combined with new political arrangements in the Middle East, would help the
oil companies keep oil scarce enough to allow their profits to thrive.34
If the ability of organized workers to disrupt the networks and nodal points
of a coal-based energy system shaped the kinds of mass politics that emerged,
or threatened to emerge, in the first half of the twentieth century, this post-war
reorganization of fossil fuel networks altered the energetics of democracy.
Oil and democracy
The points of vulnerability, where movements could organize and apply
pressure, now included a series of oil wells, pipelines, refineries, railways, docks
Timothy Mitchell: Carbon democracy 409
and shipping lanes across the Middle East. The details of some of these
struggles are worth recalling.
In Iraq, which Britain had reoccupied in 1941 less than a decade after being
forced to grant the country formal independence, post-war protests culminated
in the popular uprising and student and worker strikes of 1948. The
Communist Party of Iraq, one of the best organized political movements in
the region, demanded the evacuation of foreign troops, the unshackling of
democratic freedoms … [and] the provision of decent bread to the people
(prison letter from Comrade Fahd, early February 1948, cited in Batatu, 2004,
p. 564). Batatu notes that the party had concentrated the weight of its force
in the colossal enterprises that were … most vital to the country, the railways,
the port of Basra and the oilfields. This focus on the most vulnerable points
in the technical structures of a petroleum-based system of production
constituted the key to its basic strategy (Batatu, 2004, p. 616).
In the railways, the party organized most of its resources at the most
fundamental point in the entire system, the railway workshops at Schalchiyyah, where the main stores and all repair and maintenance work were
concentrated. Stoppage of activity in this place for ten to fifteen days would
have brought the movement of trains in the whole of Iraq to a complete
standstill (Batatu, 2004, p. 617). In the British-controlled oilfields, the party
focused its activities at an even more vital site, the point of bifurcation of the
Kirkuk-Haifa and the Kirkuk-Tripoli pipelines, the K3 pumping station near
adthah (ibid., p. 622). A strike in June 1946 by oil workers demanding the
right to a union, sickness and disability insurance, and a pension was crushed
by force with ten workers killed and twenty-seven injured. During the 1948
uprising, however, the oil workers succeeded in shutting down K3. Since the
pumping station supplied the gasoline for other pumping stations, the union
posted guards to ensure that not even a pint of gasoline got out. The stoppage
lasted two weeks, until the company surrounded the site with machine guns
and armoured cars and cut off supplies of food. Unable to risk an armed
confrontation, the strikers decided to march on Baghdad, 250 kilometres away.
After three days marching, and increasing support along the way, they entered
Fallujah and fell into a police trap (ibid., p. 624). The oil workers were sent
back to K3, and the strike leaders to prison.
The other end of the Kirkuk-Haifa pipeline, in Palestine, provided another
site of struggle. In the 19369 Arab revolt, the most sustained anti-colonial
uprising against the British in the Middle East, a major target of the insurgency
was the recently completed pipeline from Iraq. Initial efforts to weaken the
British in August 1936 by organizing a strike at the oil refinery at Haifa, and
at the port, the railway and the Public Works Department, were defeated when
the British brought in Royal Navy engineers to run the trains and Jewish
workers to run the port and the refinery (Lockman, 1996, p. 243). The pipeline
was more vulnerable. Palestinian forces destroyed it for the first time near Irbid
on 15 July 1936. They later blew it up several times near the villages of Kaukab
410 Economy and Society
al-Hawa, Mahane Yisrael and Iksal, between Afula and Beisan, and at Tel
Adas, al-Bira, Ard al-Marj, Tamra, Kafr Misr, Jisr al-Majami, Jinjar, Beisan
and Indur (Kanafani, 1972, p. 109). Unable to protect the pipeline, the British
created a force of armed Jewish settlers to assist with its defence, and to protect
the HaifaLydda railway line (Kanafani, 1972).35 This British-officered force
was the nucleus of the Zionist army that seized control of Palestine in 1948.
The construction of a pipeline to carry petroleum from the oilfields of Saudi
Arabia to the Mediterranean produced another set of political calculations and
opportunities. The Trans-Arabian Pipeline Company, a joint venture by
Exxon, Chevron, Texaco and Mobil, originally planned to terminate the
pipeline near the British refinery at Haifa.36 In 1946 they altered the route to
avoid Palestine and terminate instead on the Lebanese coast near Sidon,
passing through southern Syria. The reason given was the uncertain political
future of Palestine, but this uncertainty may have included more than just the
threat of Zionism. The British refinery, located at the terminus of the existing
pipeline from Iraq, was a site of the 1936 strike already mentioned, of an earlier
strike in February 1935 and of a thirteen-day strike for better wages in March
1947 (Lockman, 1996, pp. 327, 331). In the summer of 1947, Samuel Mikunis,
Secretary of the Communist Party of Palestine, testifying in Jerusalem before
the UN Special Committee on Palestine, raised a series of objections to the
local political powers that the oil companies exercised:
The oil refinery at Haifa (The Consolidated Refineries Limited) is a foreign
concern exempted from all payment of customs duties. Monopoly concessions
have been granted to the Iraq Petroleum Company and to the Trans-Arabian Oil
Company. These concessions include the right free of royalties, taxes, import
duties or other payments, charges or compensations to lay pipelines through
any part of the country, to expropriate land, to seize any wood, stone, water and
other local materials required, to import cheap labour regardless of existing
immigration laws, to pass freely the border of Palestine, to build and use their
own harbours, rail-roads, aerodromes and wireless stations, to exact port taxes
for harbouring and loading, and to keep their own police force. The population
of Palestine does not derive even cheaper oil and petrol from these concessions,
granted by the Government without any consultation of the people.37
Re-routing the pipeline through Syria provided a way to avoid this kind of
political contestation. When the Syrian parliament refused to ratify the terms
of the agreement with the pipeline company, arguing for improved transit fees
and a less one-sided US position on Palestine, the oil companies had the CIA
organize a coup to put a more accommodating colonel in power. The new
military government suspended parliament and the constitution and completed the pipeline agreement (Gendzier, 2006, pp. 978; Little, 2004, pp. 55
6). It was in events such as these that the post-war relationship between oil and
democracy was engineered.
Timothy Mitchell: Carbon democracy 411
In Lebanon, the US pressured the government to sign a bilateral investment
treaty that would exempt the oil companies from local labour law (Gendzier,
2006, pp. 11114, 1312). Labour protests beginning in the winter of 19434
that demanded union rights and improved pay and conditions had achieved the
passage of a Labour Code in 1946 (Abisaab, 2004; Soltau, 1949, pp. 307317;
Thompson, 2000, pp. 27781). Kamal Junblat, the Minister of National
Economy, represented a reformist faction that opposed generous concessions to
foreign multinationals and favoured the development of domestic manufacturing industry. His deputy warned that an earlier pipeline and refinery, the
KirkukTripoli line that was the other branch from the K3 pumping station in
Iraq, had provided little employment or local development. Two million tons
of oil flow every year through Tripoli, but what does the huge installation
represent in the economy of the town? Few perhaps know that a single cotton
spinning and weaving plant in Tripoli itself employs four times as much labour
as the whole Iraq Petroleum terminal and refinery together.38 In the final
negotiations over the pipeline concession, the Americans secured Junblats
removal from office (Gendzier, 2006, pp. 478, 145). When the pipeline began
operations, the US company used temporary employees and other measures to
prevent the unionization of the workforce (ibid., pp. 112, 117).
In the case of Saudi Arabia, Vitalis (2006) has brought to light the extensive
efforts of Aramco, the American-owned company with exclusive rights to the
countrys oil, to suppress labour organizing and political action.39 The
company imported the system of racially segregated workforces and worker
housing that were familiar features of oil and other extractive enterprises in the
United States. In the mid-1940s a labour movement began to emerge among
the oil workers, demanding better treatment and an end to racial discrimination in living conditions. A ten-day strike in 1953 led to a promise of reforms
and the imposition of martial law in the oilfields. When the promises were not
kept, a wave of protests, stoppages and boycotts followed, culminating in a
general strike in July 1956. The workers demands included the introduction of
a political constitution, the right to form labour unions, political parties and
national organizations, an end to Aramcos interference in the countrys affairs,
the closure of the US military base and the release of imprisoned workers.
Aramcos security department identified the leaders to the Saudi security
forces and the leadership was imprisoned or deported.
There were similar pressures in Iran. In 19456, struggles for better pay and
working conditions in the oil industry led to a series of strikes, including
a three-day general strike in the refinery at Abadan and across the oilfields.
The government gave in to the demands but then attempted to crush the
union (Abrahamian, 1982; Halliday, 1978). In 194951 the union and its allies
in the Tudeh Party (the communist party of Iran) re-emerged. As in Mexico in
1937, a reformist government tried to defuse the oil workers power by
nationalizing the countrys oil industry, albeit on terms more favourable to the
foreign oil company than those demanded by the union and the communist
party. There followed a violent confrontation between the Mossadegh
412 Economy and Society
government and the oil workers, whose leaders were arrested. However, the
international oil companies refused to accept the nationalization, and in 1953
another CIA-organized coup re-established foreign control over the countrys
oil (Abrahamian, 2001).
In Iraq, a similar pattern of events followed the overthrow of the Britishbacked regime in 1958. The new leader, Abd al-Karim Qasim, survived the
initial CIA attempts to assassinate him, including the gift of a monogrammed
handkerchief laced with poison (Powers, 1979).40 As an uneasy alliance with
the oil workers and the communist party broke down, Qasim proceeded with
plans to take back 99.5 per cent of the concession area granted to the foreignowned Iraq Petroleum Company, leaving them only the currently producing
fields in the north.41 He was removed and assassinated in the CIA-supported
coup of 1963 (Little, 2004).
If the construction of new energy networks replacing coal with oil was the
basis for building a particular form of post-war democracy in Europe, those
networks had different political properties from the coal-centred energy
arrangements they replaced. Although the oilfields, pumping stations, pipelines
and refineries of the Middle East became sites of intense political struggle, they
did not offer those involved the same powers to paralyse energy systems and
build a more democratic order.
The currency of oil
When the heads of the Trans-Arabian Pipeline Company were deciding the
route for the transportation of oil from the Gulf to the Mediterranean, they
briefly considered a southerly route terminating on the northern coast of the
Sinai Peninsula in Egypt. Like Palestine, however, Egypt fell within the British
sphere of influence. That raised a further problem besides the question of the
troubles in Palestine. Egypt was a member of the sterling area, the group of
former British colonies that issued their own local currencies but held their
hard currency earnings in a central pool in London. In fact, Egypt and Iraq
were the only non-Commonwealth members of this exchange mechanism.42
The American company wanted to use the route of the pipeline to undermine
the sterling area. A further advantage of running the pipeline through Syria
and Lebanon was to assist with this financial engineering.
The struggle between sterling oil and dollar oil was part of a third set of
linkages that were constructed between fossil fuels and the forms of midtwentieth-century democracy: the mechanisms that tied together democracy in
the West, flows of oil and the value of the US dollar.
The collapse of democracy in Europe in the 1920s and 1930s, the rise of
fascism and the path towards world war were understood to have been caused
by the collapse of the international financial system. In central and eastern
Europe, countries were forced to abandon the attempt to base the value of their
currencies on reserves of gold. One by one their domestic financial systems
Timothy Mitchell: Carbon democracy 413
collapsed, middle classes were pauperized and interwar democracy was
destroyed. The breakdown of the international gold standard, wrote
Karl Polanyi, was the mechanism which railroaded Europe to its doom
(1944, p. 20).
When the global financial order was reconstructed after the Second World
War, it was based not on reserves of gold, but on flows of oil. Gold reserves could
no longer provide the mechanism to secure international financial exchange,
because the European allies had been forced to send all their gold bullion to
America to pay for imports of coal, oil and other wartime supplies. By the end of
the war the United States had accumulated 80 per cent of the worlds gold
reserves. The Bretton Woods Agreements of 1944 fixed the value of the US
dollar on the basis of this gold, at $35 an ounce. Every other country pegged the
value of its currency to the dollar and thus indirectly to the American gold
monopoly. In practice, however, what sustained the value of the dollar was its
convertibility not to gold but to oil. In both value and volume, oil was the largest
commodity in world trade. In 1945 the United States produced two-thirds of the
worlds oil. As production in the Middle East was developed, and the routes of
pipelines plotted, most of this overseas oil was also under the control of
American companies. Under the peculiar arrangements that governed the
international oil trade, the commodity was purchased in the currency neither of
the country where it was produced nor of the place where it was consumed, but
largely in US dollars. The rest of the world had to buy it using dollars.
The place of oil in international finance escapes most standard accounts of
the post-war financial system.43 Yet it was clearly understood in post-war
planning documents.44 John Maynard Keynes and Harry Dexter White, the
main architects of the system, had argued for a third institution alongside the
International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, to manage trade in oil and
other essential raw materials.45 The concern with oil was even visible in the
sequence of meetings that established the new arrangements. Between the talks
at Bretton Woods in July 1944 that established the post-war financial regime
and those at Dumbarton Oaks in the autumn of the same year laying out the
new international political order, a third meeting was held: representatives of
Britain and the United States met in Washington in early August to draw up the
post-war petroleum order. The Anglo-American Petroleum Agreement
established an International Petroleum Commission to allocate production
quotas and manage prices, much as the International Monetary Fund, created
at Bretton Woods, would allocate borrowing quotas and manage the value of
currencies (Feis, 1946; Stoff, 1981). The agreement provided an official
successor to the 1928 cartel arrangement among the seven major US and British
oil corporations, concerned largely with limiting the flow, managing the
distribution and dividing the profits from the new oilfields of the Middle East.
The Petroleum Commission scheme was the closest that planners came to
realizing the public management of international oil production.
Domestic US oil companies used their influence in the Senate to kill the
Petroleum Agreement, preferring existing arrangements whereby the Texas
414 Economy and Society
Railroad Commission and other local regulators in the US set production quotas
and prices to an international scheme. The following February, however,
Roosevelt met with King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia, a meeting that is taken to
mark the sealing of the arrangement that would replace the International
Petroleum Commission for Middle Eastern oil. American corporations would
manage the production and marketing of Arabian oil, in exchange for
Washingtons help in suppressing labour militancy and other populist threats
to the oligarchs Britain had helped bring to power. Subsequently, the Marshall
Plan paid for Europe to postpone plans to rebuild its battered coalfields and
instead to purchase oil supplied from the Middle East but paid for in US dollars.
Britains attempt to defend the pound sterling as a rival international
currency was a battle fought over oilfields. Oil was so large a component of its
international trade that a 1955 report on the treatment of oil in the countrys
trade accounts suggested that the international ramifications of the oil
industry (including its tanker operations) are so large and so complex as almost
to constitute oil a currency in itself (cited in Galpern, 2002, italics added).46
Europe and other regions had to accumulate dollars, hold them and then
return them to the US in payment for oil. Inflation in the United States slowly
eroded the value of the dollar, so that, when these countries purchased oil, the
dollars they used were worth less than their value when they acquired them.
These seigniorage privileges enabled Washington to extract a tax from every
other country in the world, keeping its economy prosperous and thus its
If the working of carbon fuel networks helped engender certain concentrations of power and points of political vulnerability in the coal era, and these
were transformed with the post-war transition to oil into new sites of
democratic contestation and vulnerability, post-war democracy in Europe was
also built on international financial exchanges organized upon the flow of oil.
Post-war democracy in the West appeared to require a stable financial order, an
order engineered with the help of oil wells, pipelines, tanker operations and the
increasingly difficult control of oil workers. The fact that flows of oil were the
basis for intersecting networks of global energy supply and global currency
movements helped introduce a disjuncture that would become increasingly
apparent by the end of the 1960s, leading to the 19714 energydollar Middle
East crises. Before considering those interlocking crises, there is one more
dimension of carbon democracy to explore, a dimension that will also be
transformed in the 19714 crises: the mid-twentieth-century politics of the
The carbon economy
In a memorable passage in The general theory, John Maynard Keynes explains his
novel theory of the economy in terms of bank notes buried in disused coal mines:
Timothy Mitchell: Carbon democracy 415
If the Treasury were to fill old bottles with bank notes, bury them at suitable
depths in disused coal mines which are then filled up to the surface with town
rubbish, and leave it to private enterprise on well-tried principles of laissez-faire
to dig the notes up again…there need be no more unemployment and, with the
help of the repercussions, the real income of the community, and its capital
wealth also, would probably become a great deal greater than it actually is.
(Keynes, 1936a, p. 129)
British coal production had passed its peak in the 1920s. By the time Keynes
wrote The general theory, coal-mines were being exhausted at an unprecedented
rate.47 William Stanley Jevons, the author of an earlier revolution in British
economic thinking, marginalist theory of the 1870s, had published a book
warning of the coming exhaustion of coal reserves (Jevons, 1865).48 Keynes was
reading that book as he published The general theory, and gave a lecture on Jevons
in 1936 to the Royal Statistical Society (1936b).49 It is indicative of the
transformation in economic thinking in which Keynes played a role that the
exhaustion of coal reserves no longer appeared as a crisis. The management of
coal reserves could now be replaced in the mind, and in the textbooks of
economics, with reserves of currency. In the era that Keyness thinking helped to
shape, the supply of carbon energy was no longer a practical limit to economic
possibility. What mattered was the proper circulation of bank notes.
A fourth set of connections between oil and mid-twentieth-century
democratic politics concerns the role of economic expertise and the economy.
Like twentieth-century democracy, twentieth-century economic expertise
developed in a specific relationship to the hydrocarbon age.
The shaping of Western democratic politics from the 1930s onwards was
carried out in part through the application of new kinds of economic expertise:
the development and deployment of Keynesian economic knowledge, its
expansion into different areas of policy and debate, its increasingly technical
nature and the efforts to claim an increasing variety of topics as subject to
determination not by democratic debate but by economic planning and
The Keynesian and New Deal elaboration of economic knowledge was a
response to the threat of populist politics, especially in the wake of the 1929
financial crisis and the labour militancy that accompanied the crisis and reemerged a decade later. It provided a method of setting limits to democratic
practice and maintaining them.
The deployment of expertise requires, and encourages, the making of worlds
that it can master. In this case, what had to be made was the economy. This
was an object that no economist or planner prior to the 1930s spoke of or knew
to exist. Of course the term economy existed prior to the 1930s, but it referred
to a process, not a thing. It meant government or the proper management of
people and resources, as in the phrase political economy (Mitchell, 1998, 2005,
pp. 12641, 2008, pp. 44766). The economy became the central object of
democratic politics in the West (paralleled by the emergence of development
416 Economy and Society
outside the West): an object whose management was the central task of
government, and which required the deployment of specialist knowledge.
The peculiar nature of the project of the national economy deployed by
Keynesian planners and colonial development officers and its relationship to
forms of democracy can be seen by comparing it with a rival project, formulated
at the same time and destined to overtake it: neo-liberalism. Launched at a
colloquium in Paris organized in August of 1938 to discuss the work of Walter
Lippmann criticizing the New Deal, as a movement against this new object of
planning, the economy, and against planning itself as a method of concentrating
and deploying expert knowledge, neo-liberalism proposed an alternative
ordering of knowledge, expertise and political technology that it named the
market (Denord, 2001). This was not the market of David Ricardo or William
Jevons, but a term that began to take on new meanings in the hands of the
nascent neo-liberal movement. Drawing on Lippmanns warnings in The
phantom public (1925) and The good society (1938) about the dangers of public
opinion and the need to expand the areas of concern that are reserved to the
decisions of experts, neo-liberalism was launched by Hayek and his collaborators as an alternative project to defeat the threat of populist democracy.
The development of neo-liberalism was delayed by the war and the
programmes of post-war reconstruction. Its political challenge to the Keynesian consensus got under way a decade later, with the founding of a thinktank called the Institute of Economic Affairs in London in 1955. The launch
was triggered by the first post-war crisis in the oilcurrency system: Britains
attempt to preserve the sterling area as a mechanism of currency regulation,
despite losing its control of the hub of that mechanism, the Anglo-Iranian
oilfields in Iran. The desperate measures with which London tried to retain
the pounds value despite the loss of the oil wells through which this value had
been manufactured provided the point of vulnerability where the neo-liberal
movement first aimed its weapons.50
Larger connections can be drawn between the assembling of the economy
and the transition from a coal-based to a predominantly oil-based energy
system. The conception of the economy depended upon abundant and lowcost energy supplies, making post-war Keynesian economics a form of
petroknowledge. The economy was conceived in a particular way. It was
not the total of the nations wealth, something that had proven impossible to
calculate. (There seemed no way to avoid continually counting everything
twice, for example when wholesale goods were resold as retail.) It was imagined
and measured, rather simply, as the phenomenon of bank notes changing
hands. Even if it was the same money, every time it changed hands it was
measured as part of the economy. The economy was the sum total of those
monetary transactions (Mitchell, 2008).
This re-conceptualization defined the main feature of the new object: it
could expand without getting physically bigger. Older ways of thinking about
wealth were based upon physical processes that suggested limits to growth: the
expansion of cities and factories, the colonial enlargement of territory, the
Timothy Mitchell: Carbon democracy 417
accumulation of gold reserves, the growth of population and absorption of
migrants, the exploitation of new mineral reserves, increasing volumes of trade
in commodities. All these were spatial and material processes that had physical
limits. By the 1930s, many of those limits seemed to be approaching:
population growth in the West was levelling off, the colonial expansion of
the United States and the European imperial powers had ended and was
threatened with reversal, coal-mines were being exhausted and agriculture and
industry were facing gluts of overproduction. The economy, on the other
hand, measured by the new calculative device of national income accounting,
had no obvious limit. National income, later renamed the gross national
product, was a measure not of the accumulation of wealth but of the speed and
frequency with which paper money changed hands. It could grow without any
problem of physical or territorial limits.
Oil contributed to the new conception of the economy as an object that
could grow without limit in two ways. First, oil declined continuously in price.
Adjusting for inflation, the price of a barrel of oil in 1970 was one-third of
what it sold for in 1920.51 So, although increasing quantities of energy were
consumed, the cost of energy did not appear to represent a limit to growth.
Second, thanks to its relative abundance and the ease of shipping it across
oceans, oil could be treated as something inexhaustible. Its cost included no
calculation for the exhaustion of reserves. The growth of the economy,
measured in terms of GNP, had no need to account for the depletion of energy
resources. The leading contributions to the academic formulation of the
economy Keyness General theory (1936a), Hickss Value and capital (1939),
Samuelsons Foundations (1947) and the Arrow and Debreu (1954) model
paid no attention to the depletion of energy. The economics of growth of the
1950s and 1960s could conceive of long-run growth as something unrestrained
by the availability of energy (Heal & Dasgupta, 1979, p. 1). Moreover, the costs
of air pollution, environmental disaster, climate change and other negative
consequences of using fossil fuels were not deducted from the measurement of
GNP. Since the measurement of the economy made no distinction between
beneficial and harmful costs, the increased expenditure required to deal with
the damage caused by fossil fuels appeared as an addition rather than an
impediment to growth (Daly, 1991). In all these ways, the availability and
supply of oil contributed to the shaping of the economy and its growth as the
new object of mid-twentieth-century politics.
The oil wells and pipelines of the Middle East and the political arrangements
that were built with them helped make possible the idea of the Keynesian
economy and the forms of democracy in which it played a central part.
The 196774 reorganization
With all this in mind, we can turn briefly to 196774 dollaroil crisis, a pivotal
episode in the story of post-war carbon democracy. The linked crises of the
418 Economy and Society
US dollar and the nationalization of oil in the Middle East brought into play
and reconfigured the intersecting elements of carbon democracy.
Again, by following the oil one can trace how relations between oil
production, the gold standard, the circulation of dollars and Keynesian
economic expertise were all transformed in the crisis, along with the possibilities
for democratic politics in the Middle East. Following the balance of payments
crisis of the late 1950s, and the pressure created by the accumulation of the
unregulated offshore dollar reserves known as Euro-dollars, Washington had
introduced oil import quotas to protect the value of the dollar and later tried to
support its pegged gold price by interventions in the London gold market.
When this scheme collapsed in November 1968, the US tried to transform
Bretton Woods into a mechanism that allowed the gold peg to float. In an effort
to lower domestic oil prices, Washington removed the controls on oil imports in
1970, but this caused more dollars to flow abroad. By the following year, the US
had used up most of its non-gold reserves and only 22 per cent of its currency
reserves were backed by gold. When European banks requested payment for
their dollars in gold, the US defaulted. Described as the abandoning of the gold
standard, it amounted to a declaration of bankruptcy by the US government.52
These developments coincided with the emergence of a politics of the limits
to growth as an alternative project to that of the economy in which the oil
companies helped trigger the production of the environment as a rival object of
politics (Meadows, Meadows, Randers & Behrens, 1972; Schumacher, 1973).
They did this in part inadvertently, by adopting ways of drilling and
transporting oil that led to giant oil spills, around which environmentalists
were able to organize. But they also helped produce the environment as
a matter of political concern, by changing the way they calculated the worlds
reserves of oil.
In 1971 the oil companies abruptly abandoned their cornucopian calculations of oil as an almost limitless resource (calculations that had underpinned
post-war theories of the economy as an object capable of limitless growth), and
began to forecast the end of oil (Bowden, 1985). The recalculations were
needed to deal with the threat posed by the new Bathist government of Iraq,
which was developing the first major oil production in the region independent
of any Western oil company. When the oil majors tried to punish Iraq by
cutting their own production in the country, Baghdad responded by
nationalizing their assets.53 To dissuade other Gulf states from following
Iraqs lead, the oil companies now sought to accommodate or even encourage
their demand for an unprecedented increase in the price of oil, a goal already
supported by agencies of the US government (Blair, 1976; Bromley, 1991;
Oppenheim, 19767, pp. 2457). A doubling or tripling of the price of oil
would enable the major oil companies to survive the transition to a much lower
share of Middle Eastern oil revenue, and would make it feasible to develop the
less accessible, high-cost oilfields of the North Sea and northern Alaska. No
model of the economy or its future growth could rationalize such an
unprecedented transformation in costs of energy or flows of finance. But if
Timothy Mitchell: Carbon democracy 419
the world was reconfigured as a system of finite resources, rapidly running out,
then entirely new calculations became possible.
The need to conserve environmental resources and protect them for the
long term also helped with another calculation. For the oil companies, the large
increase in oil prices carried a risk. It threatened to make affordable a rival
source of energy, nuclear power. However, if the oil companies could force
producers of nuclear power to introduce into the price of the energy they sold
a payment to cover its long-term environmental effects the cost of
decontaminating reactors when they went out of service and of storing spent
fuel for millennia it would remain more expensive than oil. To promote such
calculations, the oil companies joined the effort to frame the environment as
a new object of politics, and to define it and calculate it in particular ways. Like
the economy, the environment was not simply an external reality principle
against which the oil industry had to contend. It was a set of forces and
calculations that rival groups attempted to mobilize.
The role of oil companies in framing the politics of the environment
suggests another dimension of the relationship between oil and democracy:
compared to the production of coal, oil production has a different way of
deploying and distributing expertise. Earlier, I suggested that the democratic
militancy of coal-miners could be traced in part to the autonomy that miners
exercised at the coal face, especially prior to the large-scale mechanization of
production. The autonomy of those who mined the ore placed a significant
amount of expertise in their hands. Oil, in contrast, leaves its workers on the
surface and distributes more of the expertise of production into the offices of
managers and engineers.
This difference extends further. Once mined, coal is ready to use. It may
require cleaning and sorting, but it needs no chemical transformation. Oil
comes out of the ground in an unusable form, known as crude oil. The crude
must be heated in a furnace, separated into its different hydrocarbons by
fractional distillation, and further processed into useable and uniform products.
Initially its main use was in the form of heavy oils (kerosene) for domestic
lighting and for lubrication. Gasoline and other lighter by-products of the
refining process were treated as waste. To increase their profit margin, oil
companies developed large research and development divisions to find uses for
these unused by-products, distribution and marketing divisions to promote
their use and political and public relations departments to help build the kinds
of societies that would demand them.54 The major oil companies also
collaborated to deny expertise to others, including the coal industry. The
1928 oil cartel, as Nowell (1994) has shown, was actually a broader hydrocarbon
cartel, because it was an agreement not just to restrict the production of oil, but
to prevent the use of patents that would allow coal companies to move into the
production of synthetic oils.
Compared to coal companies, oil companies developed much larger and
more extended networks for the production of expertise, which became
increasingly involved in making of the wider world a place where its products
420 Economy and Society
could thrive. For this reason, the international oil industry was well equipped
to meet the challenge of the 196774 crisis. Facing both the demand from
producer states for a much larger share of oil revenues and the rise of
environmentalist challenges to carbon democracy, the major oil companies
could draw upon a wide array of resources in public relations, marketing,
planning, energy research, international finance and government relations, all
of which could be used to help define the nature of the crisis and promote
a particular set of solutions.
One other element in the 196774 reorganization deserves mention, given
its importance to the question of democracy. As Nitzan and Bichler (2002)
have shown, the crisis gave rise to a new set of relations between oil-producing
countries and the United States, based on the selling of arms. The export of
weapons by American and other manufacturers, previously a relatively small
trade financed mostly through US overseas development aid, was transformed
into a highly profitable commercial industry.55 The real value of US arms
exports more than doubled between 1967 and 1975, with most of the new
market in the Middle East (SIPRI, n.d.). The commercialization of weapons
exports was made possible by establishing a series of linkages between the
Western import of oil from the Middle East, the flow of dollars to the producer
countries, the production of political vulnerabilities and military threats to the
further flow of oil and the use of the petrodollars to purchase arms from
the West as protection against those threats. The 196774 crisis represented
the work of connecting together these elements. The flow of weapons, and
related opportunities in construction, consulting, military assistance and
banking, now depended on new levels of militarism, and indeed on a US
policy of prolonging and exacerbating local conflicts in the Middle East and on
an increasingly disjunctive relationship with the Salafist forms of Islam that
had helped defend the against nationalist and
popular pressures in the region. The tensions between militarism, Salafism
and armed conflict would render the prospects for a more democratic politics
of oil production even weaker in the post-1974 period.56
This article has not attempted to draw up a general theory of democracy.
General theories of democracy, of which there are many, have no place for oil,
except as an exception. Rather, the goal has been to follow closely a particular
set of connections that were engineered between carbon fuels and certain kinds
of democratic and undemocratic politics.
The forms of democracy that emerged in leading industrialized countries by
the middle decades of the twentieth century were enabled and shaped by the
extraordinary concentrations of energy obtained from the worlds limited
stores of hydrocarbons and the socio-technical arrangements required for
extracting and distributing that energy. When the production of energy shifted
Timothy Mitchell: Carbon democracy 421
to oil from the Middle East, however, the transformation provided opportunities to weaken rather than extend, both in the West and the Middle East, the
forms of carbon-based political mobilization on which the emergence of
industrial democracy had depended. Exploring the properties of oil, the
networks along which it flowed, and the connections established between flows
of energy, finance and other objects provides a way of understanding how the
relations among these different elements and forces were constructed. The
relations we have followed connected energy and politics, materials and ideas,
humans and non-humans, calculations and the objects of calculation,
representations and forms of violence, and the present and the future.
Democratic politics developed, thanks to oil, with a peculiar orientation
towards the future: the future was a limitless horizon of growth. This horizon
was not some natural reflection of a time of plenty. It was the result of
a particular way of organizing expert knowledge and its objects, in terms of
a novel world called the economy. Innovations in methods of calculation, the
use of money, the measurement of transactions and the compiling of national
statistics made it possible to imagine the central object of politics as an object
that could expand without any form of ultimate material constraint. In the
196774 crisis, the relations among these disparate elements were all
transformed. Those relations are being transformed again in the present.
In their book Afflicted powers (Retort, 2005), Ian Boal and his colleagues
have suggested that understanding the contemporary politics of oil involves
the difficult task of bringing together the violence that has been repeatedly
deployed to secure arrangements for the production of oil and the forms of
spectacle and representation that seem somehow an equally effective aspect
of the undemocratic politics of oil not least the representation of the latest
rounds of US militarism as a project to bring democracy to the Middle
We can better understand the relationship between spectacle and violence,
and between other apparently disparate or discordant features of the politics of
oil, by following closely the oil itself; not because the material properties or
strategic necessity of oil determine everything else (on the contrary, as
I suggested, a lot of hard work went into producing Americas strategic
dependence on the control of Middle Eastern oil, starting with those V8
engines), but because, in tracing the connections that were made between
pipelines and pumping stations, refineries and shipping routes, road systems
and automobile cultures, dollar flows and economic knowledge, weapons
experts and militarism, one discovers how a peculiar set of relations was
engineered among oil, violence, finance, expertise and democracy.
These relations are quite different from those of the coal age. If the
emergence of the mass politics of the early twentieth century, out of which
certain sites and episodes of welfare democracy were achieved, should be
understood in relation to coal, the limits of contemporary democratic politics
can be traced in relation to oil. The possibility of more democratic futures, in
422 Economy and Society
turn, depends on the political tools with which we address the passing of the
era of fossil fuel.
I am grateful for the help received from Robert Vitalis, Munir Fakher Eldin,
Katayoun Shafiee, Andrew Barry, three anonymous referees for Economy and
Society and seminar participants at Rutgers, Cornell, Princeton, Binghamton,
NYU, SOAS, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the
University of California, Berkeley, where parts of this work were presented.
1 Ross (2001) demonstrates a negative correlation between oil exports as a percentage
of GDP and degree of democracy, as estimated in the Polity dataset compiled by Keith
Jaggers and Ted Robert Gurr (1995). The data are derived from an evaluation of the
institutional procedures by which the candidate for chief executive is selected, elected
and held accountable. The narrowness of this conception of democracy, the unreliability
of its measurement and the assumption that diverse institutional arrangements can be
compared and ranked as differing degrees of a universal principle of democracy are
among the many problems presented by the data. Ross is unable to establish reasons for
the statistical relationship between oil exports and Polity data ranking.
2 The problem of the rentier state was first formulated in Hussein Mahdavy (1970);
subsequent contributions on the Middle East include Isam al-Khafaji (2004), Hazem
Beblawi and Giacomo Luciani (1987) and Ghassan Salame (1994). For other regions,
see Karl (1997), Rosser (2007), Wantchekon (2002) and Yates (1996). Among
economists, the problem of natural resources is posed in terms of obstacles to economic
growth rather than democracy (Sachs and Warner, 1995). Goldberg, Wibbels &
Mvukiyehe (2008) examine the impact of oil and other mineral wealth on American
politics, showing that in states like Texas and Louisiana oil appears to cause lower rates
of growth and make it less likely that opposition groups win elections.
3 An important exception to this tendency to ignore the materiality of oil in
discussions of the rentier state is Fernando Coronil (1997), where the problem is
connected to a wider erasure of nature in understanding the formation of wealth. See
also Michael Watts discussion (2004) of the oil complex and the governable spaces it
requires and Robert Vitaliss examination (2006) of the labour regime and imagemaking that organized the production of oil in Saudi Arabia.
4 See Aleklett and Campbell (2003), Deffeyes (2005), Hubbert (1956) and Robelius
(2007); on the history of peak oil estimates, see Bowden (1985) and Dennis (1985).
5 Research by James Hansen and his colleagues (2007) on palaeoclimate data suggests
that feedback loops in the melting of ice can cause a rapid acceleration in the loss of ice
cover, forcing much more extreme climate change with potentially cataclysmic
consequences. These findings make even the dire warnings from the IPCC look
absurdly optimistic. See also Hansen et al. (2008).
6 On the sociology of translation, and obligatory passage points, see Callon (1986).
See also Mitchell (2002b, ch. 1).
7 Podobnik (2006, p. 5) calculates that coal replaced wood and other biomass materials
as the main source of the worlds commercial energy as early as the 1880s. But until well
into the twentieth century the bulk of this fossil energy was consumed by just a handful
Timothy Mitchell: Carbon democracy 423
8 The use of coal (as well as peat, another fossil fuel) was already known in antiquity.
But its use was generally restricted to the localities where it was found, and to particular
trades that required large quantities of process heat, such as limestone burning and
metal-smithing. Shortages of wood, especially in Britain, led to a gradual rise in the use
of coal as a general substitute for wood from the sixteenth century (Sieferle, 2001,
9 Until recently it was assumed that coal reserves would long outlast oil, with
plentiful supplies for hundreds of years. Recent studies suggest that estimates of coal
reserves are even less reliable than those for oil, that production in the US, the country
with the largest reserves, has already peaked and begun to decline and that global
production may peak as early as 2025 (Zittel & Schindler, 2007). See also Iain Boals
warnings about risks of Malthusianism in discussions of oil depletion (Boal & Martinez,
10 Pollard (1981) documents the link between coal-producing regions (rather than
states) and industrial development in Europe. See also Haberl (2006).
11 As Hobsbawm (1989, p. 88) points out, democratization came slowly. In most
countries with systems of representative rule, property qualifications and registration
procedures restricted the electorate to between 30 and 40 per cent of adult males. Voting
rights for the majority of men, and for women, were won only in the twentieth century.
For the restrictions in the British case, see Blewett (1965, pp. 2756).
12 Britain also developed coal resources in the colonies Natal and the Transvaal,
parts of Queensland and New South Wales, and West Bengal. Coal production was also
developed on a large scale in the Donets Basin in Russia, in the Illinois and Rocky
Mountain basins in the United States, and in China.
13 The strike rate per 1000 employees for coal-mining and for all industries was,
respectively, 134 and 72 (18816), 241 and 73.3 (188799), 215 and 66.4 (18941900)
and 208 and 86.9 (19015) (Edwards, 1981, p. 106).
14 On the central role of the left in creating democracy in Europe, see Eley (2002).
Coal was also associated with labour militancy beyond the main centres of the
industrialized world. Quataert (2006) notes the repeated strikes among the workers of
the Zonguldak coalfield on the Black Sea coast of Ottoman Anatolia. In Egypt, a strike
by the coal-heavers at Port Said, the worlds largest coaling station, in April 1882 is
recorded as the first collective action by indigenous workers in the country. See Beinin
and Lockman (1987, pp. 23, 2731). However, without the linkages that connected coal
to centres of industrial production within the country, these actions could not paralyse
local energy systems and gain the political force they enjoyed in northern Europe and
the United States.
15 Other discussions of relative autonomy of coal-miners and its loss under
mechanization include Dix (1988) and Tilly and Tilly (1998, pp. 4351).
16 Labors cause in Europe: the Kaisers conference and the English strike, New
York Times, 16 March 1890, p. 1.
17 In one of worlds worst pit disasters, a gas explosion destroyed the Courrie`res mine
on 10 March 1906, leaving 1100 dead (Neville, 1978).
18 Silver (2003, fig. 3.3, p. 98), shows that strikes were concentrated in these
industries rather than in manufacturing.
19 Georges Sorel (1914 ) offered another contemporary reflection on the new
power of the general strike.
20 See Chernow (1998, pp. 58190) and William Lyon Mackenzie King, Dictionary
of Canadian Biography Online, retrieved 2 June 2008 from http://www.biographi.ca.
21 Prior to the development of North Sea oil in the 1970s, the only significant oilfields
in Europe were in the Carpathian basin extending from southern Poland to Rumania.
See Frank (2007).
424 Economy and Society
22 See also Forrestal (1951, Vol. 78, 2 May 1947), Citino (2000, 2006) and Block
23 Stalins words, from a 1926 speech to railway workers, are cited in Suny (1972, p.
24 As oil is extracted the pressure in the reservoir drops. Pumps may then be used to
bring more oil to the surface or to increase the reservoir pressure by driving water or gas
into secondary wells.
25 The main exception was high-quality steam coal from South Wales, essential for
the navy and fast liners, which was shipped to British coaling stations around the world
(Jevons, 1915, p. 684). Historically, long-distance coal shipments from Britain could be
used as ballast or make-weight and benefited from low rates for back-carriage (Jevons,
1865, p. 227).
26 Charles P. Kindleberger, an economist with the Office of Strategic Services in
19424, recalled that, at the outbreak of the Second World War, coal was regarded as
something that didnt move across big bodies of water. It was shipped to British coaling
stations but you wouldnt expect international transoceanic trade as a regular thing.
And yet when the war came along, and we needed to get coal to Europe we started to
move coal out. … They were loading it in clam shell buckets on to barges in Puget
Sound to go to Europe, a landing in Texas, Portland, Maine, everywhere (McKinzie,
1973, pp. 1089). After the Second World War, Japan built a steel industry based on
coal and ore shipped from Australia.
27 In 2005, 86 per cent of world coal production was consumed within the country of
production (IEA, 2005).
28 The figure refers to ton-miles of crude oil and oil products. In 1970 coal accounted
for less than 5 per cent of seaborne trade.
29 The Torrey Canyon, an oil tanker owned by a Bermuda-based subsidiary of the
Union Oil Company of California, registered in Liberia, chartered to BP, built in 1959
and rebuilt in 1966 in a Japanese shipyard to increase her size from 66,000 to 119,000
deadweight tons, ran aground off the coast of Cornwall in March 1967. The tanker had
set sail without knowing its final destination, and lacked detailed navigation charts for
the coast of south-west England. The damage to the coastline and to wildlife was
exacerbated by the lack of methods to handle large oil spills. The British government
tried to set fire to the oil by having air defence forces bomb it with napalm, creating
further damage and inadvertently revealing their possession of the controversial weapon
and the inaccuracy of the bombers (more than a quarter of the bombs missed their
target) (Sheail, 2007; Cabinet Office, 1967).
30 Other raw materials presented similar problems of regulating global production to
prevent competition. None of them, however, were as cheap to produce and transport as
oil, or usable in such vast quantities, so they did not generate a need on the same scale
for techniques for the production of scarcity.
31 Critical accounts of US international oil policy tend to accept national security as
the concept with which to frame the history of oil, exposing its true meaning either in
terms of the logic of capitalist expansion that confronts an inevitable scarcity of
resources, as in Klare (2001, 2008), or in terms of the need for an imperial power to
secure the conditions for capitalist expansion, as in (Bromley, 1991, 2005). Explaining
oil in terms of the logics of capitalist expansion leads such accounts to overlook the
socio-technical work that must be done to turn the multiple struggles over oil into the
singular narrative of the unfolding and stabilizing of the logic of capital. On the ability
of the US oil majors to frame their programme in terms of national security, and the
reproduction of this perspective in scholarship, see Vitalis (2006).
32 Forrestal made the same argument at a Cabinet meeting on 16 January 1948 (1951,
33 On the history of American attitudes towards energy, see Nye (1999).
Timothy Mitchell: Carbon democracy 425
34 Much more could be said about the role of the major oil companies and car
manufacturers in helping to produce and popularize ways of living based on very high
levels of energy consumption. This is not a question of balancing the history of oil
production and distribution with an analysis of its consumption, so much as
understanding that production involved both producing energy and producing forms
of life that were increasingly dependent on that energy.
35 On the BritishZionist collaboration in defending the pipeline, see David
Ben-Gurion, Our friend: what Wingate did for us, Jewish Observer and Middle East
Review, 27 September 1963, pp. 1516, reprinted in Khalidi (1971, pp. 3827), and
Leonard Mosely, Gideon goes to war (London: Arthur Barker, 1955), chapter 4,
excerpted as Orde Wingate and Moshe Dayan, in Khalidi (1971, pp. 37582).
36 The four corporations, then known as Standard Oil of New Jersey (Exxon),
Standard Oil of California (Chevron), The Texas Company (Texaco) and SoconyVacuum (Mobil), were (from 1947) the joint owners of Aramco, the company with
exclusive rights to Saudi oil.
37 Testimony of Samuel Mikunis (Secretary of the Communist Party of Palestine), to
UN Special Committee on Palestine, Public Hearing, Held at the YMCA Building,
Jerusalem, Palestine, 13 July 1947, UN General Assembly, A/364/Add.2 PV. Retrieved
1 June 2008 from http://domino.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/fd807e46661e368985257
0d00069e918/77d468d8893712ce85256e83005fbc53, Previously a movement of both
Palestinian Arabs and Jewish settlers, in 1943 the Palestine Communist Party had split
into Arab and Jewish movements, but the Jewish factions, including the one led by
Mikunis, continued until late 1947 to oppose the Zionist plan for a Jewish state in
favour of ArabJewish cooperation (Lockman, 1996, pp. 30351).
38 Naim Amiouni [Amyuni], A short history of our pre-war and post-war economic
problems, 3 July 1946, cited in Gendzier (2006, p. 48).
39 See also Vassiliev (2000).
40 See also United States Senate (1976) and Mitchell (2002b, pp. 1489).
41 British Petroleum, the major shareholder in the Iraq Petroleum Company, had
rejected Iraqs earlier proposal that IPC relinquish 60 per cent of its concession area
(which covered the entire country) and give Iraq ownership of 20 per cent of the
company. Following Iraqs decision to take back all non-producing parts of the
concession, BP decided, in the words of the company historian, to wait out Qasim,
hoping for a change of government (Bamberg, 2000, p. 167).
42 For an explanation of the currency mechanism, see Zupnick (1955: 7184). Egypt
agreed to leave the sterling area in July 1947, hoping to convert its sterling balances,
accumulated in London during the Second World War, into dollars. Shortly after,
however, Britain broke the terms of the agreement by suspending the convertibility of
Egypts sterling balances (Leith-Ross, 1952, pp. 2937).
43 Standard economic histories typically ignore the question of oil. For example,
Eichengreen (2004) makes no mention of it.
44 See, for example, Dwyer (1949). Dwyer was Assistant Chief, Petroleum Branch,
Economic Cooperation Administration (the US government agency that administered
the Marshall Plan).
45 Harry Dexter White (1942) argued for an international essential raw material
development corporation whose function would be increasing the world supply of
essential raw materials and assuring member countries of an adequate supply at
46 In 1955, a paper prepared for the Working Party on the Treatment of Oil in the
Balance of Payments, the Treasury and the Ministry of Fuel and Power wrote: The
international ramifications of the oil industry (including its tanker operations) are so
large and so complex as almost to constitute oil a currency in itself. Its size and
complexity, and the fact that the fullest statistics are those relating to currency
426 Economy and Society
movements, and that any other basis of treatment would mean very substantial
corrections in a Balance of Payments account, are, in our view, sufficient reasons for
treating oil differently from other trade. (Galpern, 2002, pp. xixxx, citing Paper for
the Working Party on the Treatment of Oil in the Balance of Payments, Note by the
Treasury and Ministry of Fuel and Power, T.O. (55) 2, 28 January 1955, T 277/506).
47 On the peak of British coal production in the 1920s, see Bardi (2007) citing Kirby
(1977) and Neuman (1934).
48 Jevonss son, H. Stanley Jevons, returned to the question of the exhaustion of coal
reserves in Jevons (1915). He revised his fathers estimate of the date of the possible
exhaustion of British coal mines from one hundred years to less than two hundred
years (ibid., pp. 7567).
49 Originally a lecture delivered on 21 April 1936. The coal question is quoted on
50 Fifty years ago this summer [in 1955] a little book was published in London. It
was entitled The Free Convertibility of Sterling and was authored by an experienced
financial journalist George Winder. In the front, Antony Fisher wrote as director of
the Institute of Economic Affairs, It [the book] is of vital concern to all those who
are interested in their own freedom and the freedom of their country. Henry Hazlitt
gave the book a brilliant review in Newsweek on July 25th 1955 and all 2,000 sold out.
One can make a very good case for saying this was the start of the free market public
policy institute movement that today encircles the world. That little book did so well
that Fisher was emboldened to approach a young economist named Ralph Harris.
Harris in turn saw a chance to do good by challenging the post World War II Keynesian
consensus (Blundell, 2005, p. 6).
51 The price of oil fell from $31 dollars a barrel in 1920 to $9 in 1970 (in 2006 prices).
The average price per decade also declined, from $18 per barrel in the 1920s, to $15 per
barrel in the 1930s and 1940s, $14 per barrel in the 1950s and $12 per barrel in the
1960s (BP, 2007).
52 Block (1977, pp. 164202) makes no mention of the oil dimension of the crisis.
53 In 1961 Iraq had reduced the concession area of the foreign-owned Iraq Petroleum
Company to the fields currently in production, in the Kirkuk region in the north. In
1969 Iraq had signed an agreement with the Soviet Union to help develop oil
production in the south and to build a pipeline to a new refinery on the Persian Gulf.
When production from the new field began in April 1972, IPC cut its production at
Kirkuk by 50 per cent. The government nationalized IPC in June (Bamberg, 2000,
pp. 16371; Tripp, 2007, p. 200). Algeria had taken 51 per cent control of its Frenchowned oil industry in February 1971, and Libya began to nationalize foreign-owned oil
production in December 1971. Syria had nationalized its small oil industry in 1964.
54 Podobnik (2006) discusses this question of the differing expertise relating to coal
55 In the 1950s about 95 per cent of US arms exports were financed by government
aid; by the 1990s the figure was about 30 per cent (Nitzan & Bichler, 2002, p. 216).
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432 Economy and Society
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