Nairobi Stepping Down f to Defend Taiwan Executive

We are required to write a 1,000-word essay on ONE of the following

And my requirement is to write down quick notes about how you analyze the passage like this.

Because I have to present the whole passage in class and explain the points.
Policy memo: Write a memo on whether the United States should reach a deal or make concessions to China with respect to Taiwan. Be clear on what these concessions might be and the effects of doing so, both on Taiwan and China.

Additional Reading

Richard Bush, A , The Brookings Institution, March 2017. Download the full

report here; URL is to a summary only.

Susan Lawrence and Wayne Morrison, Taiwan: Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service, October 30, 2017 here.

John Mearsheimer, Say Goodbye to Taiwan, The National Interest March/April 2014 here. The full version of the Glaser piece can be found in International Security here.

Alan Romberg, Cross-Strait Relations: Skepticism Abounds, China Leadership Monitor (Fall 2017) here.

Isaac Stone Fish, Asias Other Nightmare Scenario, Slate October 4, 2017 here.

Two very different views of the US commitment are Richard Bush, The United States Security Partnership with Taiwan, The Brookings Institution here and Eric Gomez, A Costly Commitment Options for the Future of the U.S.-Taiwan Defense Relationship, CATO Institute Policy Analysis, September 2016 here.

Reuters, China angered as U.S. considers navy visits to Taiwan, December 27, 2017 here.

This is a policy-oriented course. We draw on theory, but we are interested in what actors have donethe policies they have chosenand what might have been done differently and more effectively given their interests.

A policy memo is designed as a real-world, real-time exercise in providing policy analysis and prescription (1000 words). A policy memo should be from someone, to someone, and have a date. The memo should reflect what the author and recipient knew at the time, not events or information that is only revealed subsequently. A policy memo should:

Outline the policy issue in question;
Consider options that were or could have been taken;
Reach a judgment about the costs and benefits of different policy choices.
It should also make a recommendation.
In this assignment, you must apply concepts from this course to address a . This paper is not a research paper or analytic essay; rather, it is a policy document for a hypothetical policymaker. There is some room to be creative with regards to who is your intended audience. But it is important to spend some time putting yourself in the shoes of that policymaker and thinking about what their goals and priorities are.
This paper will count for 20% of the final grade. You will have the opportunity to sign up for a prompt and position in sections (see Due Date section, below). Below you will find: i) detailed instructions about the assignment, ii) memo prompts and additional sources (beyond those readings from syllabus for that topic) and iii) a guide to good policy memo writing.

Length: Your memo must be approximately 1,000 words long.
Due Date: Your TAs will have you sign up for a due date for the memo based upon the topic you choose. This will be discussed during the first discussion section (week 2). In general, memos will be due a few days after the topic you select is discussed in lecture. Contact your TA if you have any questions regarding the due date after your first discussion section meets. Late assignments will be penalized.
Formatting: Assignments should be in 12-point font, Times New Roman. Assignments should have 1-inch margins. Assignments can be single or double-spaced.
Grading: Assignments will be evaluated according to clarity of the argument (20%), quality of analysis (30%), level of support (20%), accuracy of claims (10%), organization (10%), and style (10%).
Citations: In addition to assigned readings provided on the syllabus, we have created a bibliography of additional sources (below); you may do additional research if you like but it is not required. You should cite sources in the text of your assignment as footnotes or endnotes (these will not count towards the word count). You do not need to include a works cited page at the end of your assignment. You may use MLA, APA, or Chicago style

Academic Dishonesty: We expect you to do your own work. I am professionally and ethically responsible to report all possible integrity violations to the Academic Integrity Office. Integrity violations are not just blatant cheating (e.g., copying an online source for your memo), but what you might have thought of as “minor cheating” in high school, for example: copying other students’ papers or homework; copying or using old papers/report; working with others on individual assignments; forgetting to cite material you took from an outside resource; turning in work completed in total or part by another. Those students found to have violated academic integrity will face administrative sanctions imposed by the University and academic sanctions imposed by the course instructor. See the University Sanctioning guidelines
Policy Memo Prompts and Bibliography
at http://academicintegrity.ucsd..pdf.

These sanctions are not at our discretion but your grade, the academic sanction, however, is at my discretion. And we will give an F (0) on any assessment in which an academic integrity violation occurred – regardless of the extent of the violation. NOTE: Students who facilitate academic integrity violations (e.g., giving their paper to another student), are also violating academic integrity standards.

For the policy memo in particular, we expect students to produce their own original memo, appropriately cite credible outside sources that were used during the writing of the essay, and seek assistance from class instructors as needed. Most confusion over academic dishonesty can be addressed by communicating with the instructors before the assignment is submitted. We encourage you to do so. Please feel free to contact your TA if you have any questions as to what may constitute a violation.

Accessing reliable information is a difficult task, so we have selected additional readings that we suggest you use for writing your policy memo. You do not have to use all of them, and you are free to expand your search. But everyone in the class is able to complete these assignments successfully drawing only on the material in this bibliography. The work falls in several categories:

Books, most from academic presses (in electronic form).
Articles from major policy journals (for example, Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, The National Interest and The Diplomat).
Policy pieces and blogs from major think tanks (for example, CSIS, Brookings, American Enterprise Institute).
Articles from academic journals.

Articles from reputable journalistic sources.


In each case, start by reading the required readings for the class, which are also listed below under each topic and prompt. Once you have read enough to decide what position you want to take, then consult the memo on how to write a memo and consult with your TA. There is no right or wrong answer: all students in the course can succeed taking either position where two alternatives are under consideration.

I.Elements of a Policy Memo

What is a policy memo?

The structure of a policy memo and briefing is somewhat different than a more academic paper that is trying to test a theory with some data. A policy memo is more action- oriented and usually has the following components. You will see that we have provided you prompts around which to write.
What problem needs to be solved?
What is the environment?
What are alternative solutions?
Evaluate the alternatives, and select one or more
Implementation plan
What decision needs to be made? What critical problems is the organization having?

Sometimes this is obvious, but often it requires work to figure out the real problem at hand. Is there in fact a problem at all or has it been exaggerated? Sometimes, the best advice is to continue doing what you have been doing or do nothing at all.

Each actor has to have some assessment of the nature of the environment and actors that matter, which includes not only foreign players but the domestic scene as well. For example, you can outline a bold approach, or you can ignore the issue altogether. Both may be defensible; but how will other parties and your domestic audience react?

Policies are always formed in the context of alternatives and you need to think about what these might be.

Much of your effort and prose will go into this step. It is useful to prepare some kind of comparison table summarizing the costs and benefits of different courses of action, if only for yourself. Of course, evaluating each alternatives does not mean simply evaluating it from your perspective; you have to look down the game tree at how other parties might react, including in the unexpected ways. Remember: one possible option is always to do little or nothing at all!

Think through the next steps. You’ve said what should be done, but how do you actually make it happen? What obstacles and contingencies do you need to plan for? For example, if you need agreement from other parties, what arguments will you make to persuade them? If your plan entails major financial outlays, how will these be met?

How should a policy memo be formatted?

There is no single established format for a policy memo, but most share a number of features that will be outlined here and that we expect you to broadly follow.

The standard memo style typically starts with a four-line block at the top. For example:

To:President Xi Jinping
From: Yang Jiechi, State Counselor and Secretary General of the Foreign Affairs Leading Small Group

Date: January 1, 2018

Re:Enforcement of North Korea sanctions in 2018.

Note that your policy is from someone, to someone on a particular date. The people you choose for your memo should be actual decision-makers or a plausible advisor. (for example, Stephan Haggard, Advisor to the President on the North Korean issue).

Your subject line (the Re: line) should be clear and can even be argumentative, telling your reader exactly what the controversy is and what position you take. For example, it could be Stronger Enforcement of North Korean Sanctions in 2018 or Resisting US Pressure for Collapse of North Korea through Sanctions Enforcement

Executive Summary: The first paragraph of your memo is the Executive Summary. DO NOT stage set; go straight to the essential information of the memo:

What is the question you are answering?
What are the critical pieces of evidence for your analysis?
In some cases, you may need to note the key players in a debate

What is the solution you propose?

Treat this paragraph as if it is the only one in the memo likely to be read. You have the option to use bullet points here if you feel this would be most effective in getting your point across.

Ex. Poor Executive Summary:

North Korea, officially the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (abbreviated DPRK), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. In 2017, North Korea conducted a series of missile and nuclear tests that demonstrated the country’s ability to launch ballistic missiles beyond its immediate region and suggested that North Korea’s nuclear weapons capability was developing at a faster rate than had been assessed by the U.S. intelligence community. This, coupled with a regular joint U.S.South Korea military exercise undertaken in August 2017, as well as U.S. threats, raised international tensions in the region and beyond. Trump Administration officials have stated that all options are on the table, to

include the use of military force to denuclearizegenerally interpreted to mean eliminating nuclear weapons and related capabilities from that area.

[Note that this summary identifies a problem in broad terms, but it does not focus on policy choices and simply describes in broad terms what has happened.]

Ex. Good Executive Summary [note this is from a much longer report than 1000 words and thus much longer than you will need for this assignment]:

North Koreas apparently successful July 2017 tests of its intercontinental ballistic missile capabilities, along with the possibility that North Korea (DPRK) may have successfully miniaturized a nuclear warhead, have led analysts and policymakers to conclude that the window for preventing the DPRK from acquiring a nuclear missile capable of reaching the United States is closing.

A key issue is whether or not the United States could manage and deter a if it were to become capable of attacking targets in the U.S. homeland, and whether taking decisive military action to prevent the emergence of such a DPRK capability might be necessary. Either choice would bring with it considerable risk for the United States, its allies, regional stability, and global order.

One potential question for Congress is whether, and how, to employ the U.S. military to accomplish denuclearization, and whether using the military might result in miscalculation on either side, or perhaps even conflict escalation. In this report, we identify seven possible options, with their implications and attendant risks, for the employment of the military to denuclearize North Korea. These options are:

maintaining the military status quo
DPRK regime change
The paragraph should begin with an Assertion that states the argument of that paragraph (A)
The assertion should be followed with an eXample/piece of evidence (X)
The example should then be Explained (E)
enhanced containment and deterrence while

denying DPRK acquisition of delivery systems capable of threatening the United States

eliminating ICBM facilities and launch pads

eliminating DPRK nuclear facilities

withdrawing U.S. military forces.

Headings: Each section of your memo should have a clear heading so that a reader interested only in the background, analysis or recommendations can find them quickly. If you want to include sub-headings that add specificity, you may do that but make certain that they are clear and substantive. The headings after your Executive Summary would likely be:

Background: Again, this section should have relevant information only. You are not tracing the memo issue from the dawn of time. Indeed, a specialist may choose to skip this section; make the background explanation concise so that you have room in your memo for the analysis and prescription.

In the background section, then, you want to answer very specific questions: What happened? Why is the issue pressing at this moment? Who are the critical participants in the debate? What are the particular pieces of evidence that are important to both understanding the debate and your prescription?

Analysis: This is the section that examines, piece by piece, the evidence that supports your recommendation or argument. In a 1000 word memo, probably three quarters of your memo will be devoted to this section.

Each paragraph in the analysis should be dedicated to a single piece of evidence and have one point to make. Keep in mind the AXES rule as you write a paragraph:

The paragraph should conclude with a Statement that ties the evidence assertion back to the argument of your memo. (S)
The sequencing of your body paragraphs should be dictated by the logic of the evidence as it builds to your conclusion. Note that it is extremely important that you consider possible counterarguments to the one you advance: why other positions will have negative effects.

Conclusion/Policy Recommendation: You began your memo with an Executive Summary that contained a statement of your recommendation. Each succeeding paragraph built the case, piece by piece, for that recommendation. The conclusion, then, draws on everything in your analysis, explaining how the evidence fits together and points most logically to your argument.

One warning about the conclusionit should never have anything new; your conclusion should not surprise your reader. Take some time to look at your introductory paragraph and conclusion side by side. It may be the case that you need to do some rewriting of the front end of your memo to bring it in line with your argument.

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