Week 4 – Discussion 1
Eating Disorders Eating disorders are becoming commonplace in todays society. Men and boys are becoming diagnosed more frequently, while girls and women continue to experience increased rates. For this discussion question, you are to search the Online Databases in the online library and find at least one research article that involves the diagnosis and treatment of an eating disorder, such as bulimia, anorexia, or binge eating. Share a brief summary of the article and what it revealed. From the article, identify the information you could utilize in working with clients with eating disorders. What treatment strategies might you use when working with a client with an eating disorder? Make sure you reference your article in your initial post.
RESPOND TO CLASSMATE 1:
The article explores how the novel approaches for diagnosing and treating anorexia nervosa (AN) gauge the body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in patients with AN. The study relied on a dependable ultrasound approach to determine the SAT of 18 patients with AN aged between 18 and 40 years. The research started with computing the sum of 8 sites and evaluating the metabolic profile of each patient. After that, laboratory diagnostics, dermal carotenoids, and oxidation stress indicators were measured. The results revealed a significant variance between the sums of SAT thickness of all the eight sites and the oxidative stress parameters for individuals with the same BMI (Lackner et al., 2019). The study concluded that the body composition of each patient should be incorporated into the AN protocols. It recommended the inclusion of muscle training in dietary treatments to curb unwanted fat gain.
The Information I Could Utilize in Working with Clients with Eating Disorders
The findings and the recommendation of the study will be vital to my treatment plans for patients with eating disorders (EDs). The results revealed that while a patient may have a low BMI, his fat mass might be high (Lackner et al., 2019). Therefore, I will make each patient’s body composition a primary aspect of my diagnosis and treatment plan. Moreover, since a treatment plan embracing diet might result in unnecessary fat gain, I will consider adopting muscle training when treating patients with AN as recommended in the study.
The Treatment Strategies I Would Use When Working with a Client with an Eating Disorder
The family-based behavioral treatment is one of the strategies that I will rely on to treat patients with EDs. The approach focuses on the entire family to promote healthy behaviors (Limbers, Cohen, & Gray, 2018). Moreover, I will use cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to work with individuals with EDs. CBT focuses on altering dysfunctional thinking and behavioral patterns related to eating (Marzilli, Cerniglia, & Cimino, 2018). A combination of the two approaches will ensure I provide comprehensive treatment.
Lackner, S., Mrkl, S., Mller, W., Frhapter-Rieger, A., Oberascher, A., Lehofer, M., & Holasek, S. J. (2019). Novel approaches for the assessment of relative body weight and body fat in diagnosis and treatment of anorexia nervosa: A cross-sectional study. Clinical Nutrition, 38, 2913-2921. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.12.031Links to an external site.
Limbers, C. A., Cohen, L. A., & Gray, B. A. (2018). Eating disorders in adolescent and young adult males: Prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment strategies. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 9, 111-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AHMT.S147480Links to an external site.
Marzilli, E., Cerniglia, L., & Cimino, S. (2018). A narrative review of binge eating disorder in adolescence: Prevalence, impact, and psychological treatment strategies. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 9, 17-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AHMT.S148050Links to an external site.
RESPOND TO CLASSMATE TWO:
Eating conditions should be detected and treated as soon as possible. It can be impossible for primary care doctors to identify eating disorders in their early stages. Eating conditions can be related to a slew of negative medical effects. This clinical study discusses the literature on eating disorders and reflects on the practical challenges that primary care doctors face when treating these diseases. Hospitalization rates associated with eating disorders are increasing significantly over the years. The key eating disorders used in primary care are discussed in this study. It discusses the signs and symptoms of these eating disorders, as well as the diagnostic tests that can be used to diagnose these conditions and the pharmacological and psychosocial measures that can be used to treat them (Sim et al., 2010).
An estimated 0.5 to 0.1 percent of people have Anorexia nervosa (AN). This is a condition in which the body weight is abnormally low (at least 15 percent below what would be expected). The frequency of AN is between 0.5 and 1 percent, with teenage girls and young women being the most affected. Dehydration, electrolyte disruptions, kidney complications, and heart compromise necessitate emergency medical treatment for the emancipated patient. The most frequent acid-base dysfunction in patients with eating disorders is metabolic alkalosis. Patients with BN are more likely to be encountered by physicians than patients with AN. Women are more likely than men to have BN (1.0 percent -1.5 percent) (Sim et al., 2010).
The majority of BN patients will be of average weight. The Russell sign, calluses, or abrasions on the hand overlying the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints, which are produced by frequent contact with the incisors during self-induced vomiting, will alarm the astute clinician. Medical complications such as electrolyte imbalances and intestinal dysfunction are common (Sim et al., 2010). While dealing with eating disorder patients, we should first observe their symptoms carefully and then conclude based on different statistics and which category of eating disorders the symptoms fall into and then treat them accordingly.
Sim, L. A., McAlpine, D. E., Grothe, K. B., Himes, S. M., Cockerill, R. G., & Clark, M. M. (2010, August). Identification and treatment of eating disorders in the primary care setting. Mayo Clinic proceedings. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2912736/Links to an external site..
Fauconnier, M., Rousselet, M., Brunault, P., Tianbaud, E., Lambert, S., Rocher, B., Challet-Bouju, G., & Grall-Bronnec, M. (2020). Food addiction among female patients seeking treatment for an eating disorder: Prevalence and associated factors. Nutrients, 12(1897). https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.3390/nu12061897Links to an external site.
TOPIC: Week 4 – Discussion 2
Personality Disorder Case Discussion Provide an analysis of the case below, including the clients main symptoms, diagnosis, possible causes of the disorder, and treatment options. Use the course text and/or a scholarly peer-reviewed journal article to support your diagnosis and explanations of causes. Respond to at least two of your classmates posts, explaining your agreement or disagreement and rationale regarding their analysis, no later than Day 7. Anne is a 21-year-old, Caucasian female. She lost her mom, after a long illness, when she was 14. She did not have any other family. Her stepfather passed her around from one family friend to another throughout her high school years. Now, in college, she has learned how to initially appear happy and positive to attract friends and partners, whom she quickly becomes very attached. Her relationships are very intense and often end abruptly, which partners and friends attribute to her jealousy and anger when she does not get her way. Because these people tend to become overwhelmed by her, they withdraw from her, and she is again, left alone. Anne also often engages in self-injury, by cutting her forearm with sharp objects.
Respond to classmate 1: Personality disorders are mental health problems that cause unhealthy and rigid functioning, behavior, or thinking. According to Butcher, Mineka, and Hooley (2014), individuals with personality disorders have challenges building relationships, are discontented with themselves, or might engage in dangerous activities. Anns case provides necessary examples to understand the symptoms, diagnosis, causes, and treatment of personality disorders.
Some of the symptoms Ann exhibits include faster and intense attachments that end abruptly, anger, and jealousy. Her obsessive nature often overwhelms her peers, who later abandoned her. The loneliness causes sudden mood changes and can sometimes lead to self-injury. The conditions are what Schoenleber and Berenbaum (2010) associate with a borderline personality disorder, which they say manifests as risky behavior and unstable intense relationships. Such conditions also affect the personal image and might trigger other problems such as depression or anxiety disorders.
Borderline personality disorder diagnosis is done by a licensed psychologist, psychiatrist, or clinical social workers. The professionals use differential diagnosis criteria that include an intensive interview and examination for family and personal medical history (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2014). The procedures are essential because the disorder has various causes. Schoenleber and Berenbaum (2010) claim that genetic factors, functional and structural brain changes, and traumatic life events increase susceptibility. Understanding the cause, especially socio-cultural and environmental, can assist in treatment. Butcher, Mineka, and Hooley (2014) claim that borderline personality disorder is challenging to treat, but evidence-based interventions provide some positive results. Therefore, the management should focus on symptoms and triggers. Anns case is an excellent example to understand personality disorders. The symptoms she exhibits include risky behaviors and intense friendship associates with a borderline personality disorder. Nonetheless, a conclusive diagnosis needs a report from either psychiatrist, psychologist, or clinical social worker. Though there is no proven treatment, an evidence-based intervention can reduce symptoms manifestation.
Butcher, J.N., Mineka, S., & Hooley, J.M. (2014). Abnormal psychology (16th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. https://www.pdfdrive.com/abnormal-psychology-16th-edition-e166665031.htmlassmate 1:
Respond to classmate 2:
Client: Anne is a 21-year-old, Caucasian female.
Background: Anne lost her mother when she was 14 years old. She did not have any other family that could care for her. Her stepfather passed her around from one family friend to another throughout her high school years until she became an adult. She is currently in college; she has taught herself to seem happy when she isnt. This perceived happy personality tends to attract friends and partners, but she quickly becomes attached to them. Each of her relationships is categorized as intense, and they end all of a sudden. When she doesnt get her way, she becomes angry and jealous. Her friends and partners are overwhelmed by her behavior and often withdraw from her. This leaves her with feelings of loneliness. In addition to everything, she cuts her forearm with sharp objects. Diagnosis: I will be diagnosing Anne with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Reasoning: Patients who suffer from Borderline Personality Disorder have unstable emotions. These emotions are described as an emotional rollercoaster. People constantly go through feelings and emotions that change often. Anne was angry and jealous-spirited. This is a direct symptom of BPD because people with this disorder tend to be sensitive, which can turn into emotions. They tend to have impulsive behavior that cannot be controlled once they are upset. A person must show at least five of the nine symptoms to be diagnosed with BPD. In this case, Anna shows at least five symptoms and they all began in her adolescent years after her mother passed away and she was passed between friends of the family. She suffers from the fear of abandonment streaming from her childhood, an unstable sense of self. She displays self-destructive behavior, self-harming behavior, mood swings, extreme feelings of emptiness. BPD’s possible causes are generally unknown, but Anne had a few childhood triggers that contributed to her condition. It isnt clear if either of her parents suffered from mental health illness, but we know that her mother was sick. Her environment definitely had a lot to do with the development of her disorder. Studies show that development factors contributing to BPD are genetic, environmental, and neurological factors (Chapman et al., n.p.) A borderline personality disorder is treatable. The self-help method seems to be one of the best ways to approach this condition. Because of the emotional factors that are involved, one must learn to control their emotions. Learning how to learn self-control techniques to help with anger and outbursts is one of the many tools that can be used to help. Hooley et al talked about mentalization. This type of therapy will be useful to Anne because it will help her learn how to develop skills to comprehend her emotions.
Chapman, Jennifer, et al. Borderline Personality Disorder. Nih.gov, StatPearls Publishing, 7 June 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430883/.Hooley, J.M. Butcher, J.N., Nock, M.K., & Mineka, S.M. (2016). Abnormal psychology (17th ed.). Pearson
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