Statements of how the community has grown

Design Requirement:
Every community plan is a description of a places past, present, and future. The current built environment is a reflection of past development decisions, while
the planning principles are statements of how the community has grown and decisions about land use that it has made. However, in many cases, the focus on
the future leads to a failure to describe and analysis the past. The goal of this assignment is for you to find a community plan that has a historical section that
you find wanting and to rewrite that section to improve it. You need to design a brochure to educate your community about itself. I will create groups of
students to work on this assignment.
1. The group should look at community plans. You might consider ones tied to your hometowns or places that you have visited. You do not need to use
LA. How do the community plans differ in their approach to history? Did you find one that you particularly like one that somehow captures the history of a
community in a way that it helps set the foundation for the plan that follows?
2. After you have looked at one or more plans, you need to explore the possible sources that you will use to improve the plan. Construct a bibliography of
possible sources. If what you find is very skimpy, you may be asking too much from your sources. Dont forget that your sources are not just published
community histories. You can use photographs, maps (Sanborn maps are especially nice to frame changing places), diaries, novels, and earlier plans if they
help elucidate the chosen community.
3. While you will find many of your resources on the web, trips to libraries are important.
4. You will produce a 4-to-8-page all inclusive (including citations) brochure illustrating the history for local residents. The brochure should have oneinch margins and have appropriate sources. The brochure should be effectively illustrated and persuasive, built around a compelling narrative. Our evaluation
will be based on your ability to develop a strong, well-documented, effective document that is accessible and persuasive.
What does it mean to improve the history? A communitys history is a mosaic of planning concerns. The brochure should consider transportation, economic
development, social planning, land use, and urban design issues, but portray them in an historical narrative. Instead of pulling them apart into separate silos, a
history section should frame the remainder of the plan.
Palm Springs
The Palm Springs Vision:
A world-renowned desert resort community where residents and visitors enjoy
safe neighborhoods, an exciting social environment and a relaxing leisure
We enhance our natural, cultural, and historical resources with sustainable
economic growth and high style.
We provide responsive, friendly and efficient public services within a
government that fosters unity among all our citizens.
Image Source: Palm Springs Then and Now
Image Source: John Earl
Palm Springs has a
reputation of a world class
desert resort and one of
the nations most
recognized winter
playgrounds. Bounded by
the Santa Rosa and San
Jacinto Mountains, Palm
Springs is a product of its
relationship with its
surrounding natural and
geographic environments.
We will explore the way
that Palm Springs
residents, the Agua
Caliente Tribe, and local
government helped shape
Palm Springs into the well
known city it is today.
(PRE 1939)
Through the 1920s and into the 1930s, Palm Springs gained an enduring reputation as a
haven for celebrities as it provided a space beyond the reach of the gossip columnists
from Los Angeles. Many stars visited or bought homes here, and many more luxurious
hotels were constructed [6].
One major resort was the Grand Hotel El Mirador. El Mirador was built in a Spanish
colonial revival style and included 200 guest rooms with hand-carved furniture, a
swimming pool, tennis courts, and the first golf course in Palm Springs [7]. In 1936, Julia
Carnell built the first mixed-use shopping center in the downtown area, known as La
Plaza. La Plaza is still in operation today [8].
As the area grew into a blooming resort region for white people, people of color faced a
different reality. Whether it was constructing the buildings, or filling the service jobs, the
Latino, African American, Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino residents served as the
backbone of the resort industry. In the 1920s, more people who fled during the Mexican
Revolution began arriving at Palm Springs [9]. However, discriminatory housing practices
kept minority families from living in better-developed parts of the city. At the same time,
archaic land leasing laws kept the Agua Caliente from developing their land [10]. So the
tribe’s landowners rented Section 14 to families of color, generating some revenue and
giving the city’s blue-collar workforce a place to live.
The earliest inhabitants of the Palm Springs area were the Agua Caliente Band of
Cahuilla Indians. They built complex communities in the canyons found in the area.
With an abundant water supply, the Agua Caliente Indians thrived. In 1877, the
federal government divided the land into one-square-mile sections, deeding every
other section to the local tribe. This action made a checkerboard pattern, with
primarily even-numbered sections belonging to the Agua Caliente Indian
Reservation [1]. The land division incentivized the Southern Pacific Railroad to
complete the railroad to the Pacific Coast [2].
A railroad connecting to this area would benefit agriculture thrived within the
Coachella Valley due to access to water sources such as the Colorado River and
its winter temperatures free from frost. An agricultural rich society had seemingly
just sprung up within the middle of the desert. Now, an efficient transportation
system could help quickly ship the goods [3]. During this time, tuberculosis was
ravaging communities in the U.S., so people traveled to the area and hoped the
dry climate would serve as a cure [4].
In the late 1890s, John McCallums became the first man to bring water to the
desert by constructing a stone-lined ditch and dreamed of turning Palm Springs
into an “agricultural paradise” [5]. McCallums built adobe homes and persuaded
Dr. Murray to establish a health resort made of adobe, later known as “Palm
Springs Hotel.”
Cahuilla Woman Image
Source: Edward S. Curtis, 1905
La Plaza Image Source:
Los Angeles Public Library
Southern Pacific Railroad DEVELOPMENT”
Image Source:
(1939 – 1945)
From the agricultural boom, the desert saw an explosion of populations within towns
along with streetcars and hotels. Tourism soon became the dominant industry in Palm
Springs as the trains brought visitors to see the desert vacation destination [11]. Palm
Springs became the #1 desert getaway for Hollywood stars.” [12]. People would
indulge in the resort lifestyle through the amenities provided by its tennis courts and
golf courses. Finally, in 1938, Palm Springs was incorporated as a city and contributed
significantly to the WWII effort.
In the 1940s, Palm Springs played an essential part in World War II, and the Army
Corps of Engineers chose Palm Springs to have an “Air Corps landing field” and to
become an army headquarters in 1939 [35]. The desert became a training ground for
General George S. Pattons troops. The El Mirador Hotel was purchased by the U.S.
government and converted into Torney General Hospital, where thousands of soldiers
were treated [14]. A year later, on August 1, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed
the Palm Springs Airport Bill allocating money for constructing an airport in Palm
Palm Springs Air Base Image
Source: The Palm Springs
Historical Society
The government used the airport for training, aircraft
maintenance, and a receiving area for wounded soldiers brought
into Torney General Hospital, later renamed Palm Springs Air
Base [15]. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Palm Springs Air
Base shifted gears and solely focused its mission on deploying
aircraft from American manufacturing areas to training facilities
domestically and internationally [35]. As a result, Palm Springs
replaced existing dirt roads with new roads to aid in transporting
goods to and from the base, and was able to maintain ownership
of the city’s right-of-way.
Torney General Hospital
Image Source: The Palm
Springs Historical
(1946 – 1980)
Tramway Image Source:
Jill Weinlein
In the 1950s and 1960s, the population began to grow and
small businesses such as hotels and stores flourished. The twohour drive to Los Angeles allowed Palm Springs to become a
close-by vacation destination. As economic development
flourished, Palm Springs saw the implementation of hotels, a
stadium, an airport, and a magazine company [19]. Then in
September of 1963, Palm Springs opened the worlds largest
rotating tram cars that ascended 8,000ft above sea level
that included two restaurants, a natural history museum and
over 50 miles of hiking trails [20].
By the 1970s, a condominium boom occurred among retirees
and people searching for a place free from a congested city.
Newer resort cities were founded around Palm Springs such as
Cathedral City, Palm Desert, and La Quinta; however, each of
the cities collectively advertise themselves as The Palm
Springs Desert Resorts [21]. As more people continued to
move in, the SunLine Transit Agency was established on July 1,
1977, providing fixed bus route services and curb-to-curb
paratransit for the mobility impaired between Riverside
County and Coachella Valley cities [22]. With these new
developments and attractions, more and more people began
to enjoy Palm Springs year-round, instead of just during the
cooler months [23].
After the war, there was a construction boom where architecture reaped
all the benefits. Desert Modernism, a distinctive branch of the
Modern/International Movement used materials that were sustainable
and that could survive the harsh desert environment, while still embracing
incredible views. Frank Sinatras home in Palm Springs that was built in
1947 was one of the residential projects that made desert modernism so
desired and demand for this type of type of residential architecture
skyrocketed [37].
Palm Springs started to market itself as the Golf Capital of the World
after Johnny and Velma Dawson opened the Thunderbird Country Club in
1951 [13] [16]. Tourism continued to grow, and Palm Springs welcomed
celebrity residents like Frank Sinatra and Lucille Ball. Visitors traveling
long distances came almost exclusively by train, in deluxe Pullman cars.
Even after the availability of air travel, many preferred the train [17]. Palm
Springs had become a world-renowned city thanks to the accessibility of
the Southern Pacific Railroad.
Within the minority populations following WWII, strained race relations,
overcrowding, and urban renewal led to a local movement of the 1950s
clean-ups of Section 14, under the Conservatorship and Guardianship
Program. Under this program, court-appointed conservators managed
the finances of individual Agua Caliente tribal members, including
terminating land leases. Many families were forcefully evicted and had
their property burned. As a result, in 1956, Lawrence Crossley, a former
resident of section 14, founded the Crossley Tract, Palm Springs first
African American residence. Crossley intended the 20-acre tract, which
at the time was outside city limits, to be a place where black families
could live. City records indicate the area was incorporated into the city
about a decade later, after Crossleys death [18].
Section 14 Image Source:
The Desert Sun
When driving on the I-10 near the San Gorgonio Pass, Palm Springs boasts
one of its signature spectacles wind turbines. The wind turbines have
been serving as a welcome sign to visitors since San Gorgonio Wind Farm’s
inception in 1982. Because of the 15-20 mph winds, developers erected
wind turbines to provide enough electricity to serve households and
businesses in Palm Springs and the Coachella Valley [24]. The establishment
of one of the first wind turbines provided the path to California’s future as a
renewable energy leader. During this time, Palm Springs was also becoming
a leader in advocating for gay and lesbian rights and historic preservation.
(1980 – 2000)
San Gorgonio Image Source:
Big Bear Lakefront Cabins
Additionally, Palm Springs also attempted to introduce
shuttle services during this time, beginning with the Sun
Surrey. However, it was short-lived due to operating costs
and the refusal of merchants to pay the levy associated
with operating costs. Almost a decade later, the Sun
Trolleys hit the streets to help relieve traffic congestion. In
the early ’90s, Palm Springs introduced the Village Shuttle.
It offered special guided tours of celebrity homes and the
Indian Canyons for visitors [29]. In addition to the shuttle
service, Amtrak began serving Palm Springs by adding a
new station located eight miles north of downtown on
June 3, 1997 [30].
Windmills Image Source:
Jay Calderon (The Desert Sun)
In 1979, a group of gay and lesbian hotel and bar
owners formed the Desert Business Association. They
began the pride events, but the pride parade did not
truly begin until 1992 [25]. Pride celebrations have
traditionally been held in June to commemorate the
Stonewall uprising of 1969. Due to the heat, organizers
decided to move the pride parade to November in
1995 [26]. Despite the heat, Palm Springs has continued
to be a paradise for lovers of the arts and architectural
design. As a result, Palm Springs has hosted an
International Film Festival since 1989 and would make
great strides in architecture [27] [28].
Despite being a hub for arts and architecture, Palm
Springs became a prime destination for spring break.
However, excessive partying led to the 1986 riot which
would later encourage efforts and actions to
discourage people from crazily partying. The
implementation of more wholesome activities
contributed to the economic decline in the 90s.
Palm Springs suffered from a “loss of identity” in the 90s
[36]. However, the city boasts a large amount of
“midcentury modern architecture” homes. Palm Springs
hoped capitalizing on architectural revitalization,
achieved through historic preservation, would draw
more tourism and cashflow into the area.
Frank Sinatra’s Midcentury Twin
Palms Home’s Image Source:
Big Bear Lakefront Cabins
(2000 – PRESENT)
In the early 2000s, Americas first and only Gay Veterans’
Memorial opened in Palm Springs, followed by Americas
first all-LGBT city council [31]. In 2007, Palm Springs
implemented a General Plan whose land use plan includes
residential, commercial, mixed use, employment centers,
institutional, and open space uses. Palm Springs continues
designing with a desert modernist style that incorporates
floor plans with lots of sliding glass doors and windows
achieving a minimalistic style [32]. The Tramway Shell Gas
Station receives historical status for being the last of the
mid-century modern architect designed gas stations still
functioning as a gas station that represents the post World
War II period of commercial development [33].
Nations First All-LGBTQ City Council
Image Source: City of Palm Springs
Today, in the central area, most parts are modern residential
homes and business districts sprout in strips and are
organized around public transit. A 40-mile transportation
project, known as CV-Link, will soon connect Coachella to
Palm Springs. The path will be built for pedestrians, bikes and
golf carts. The path will focus on keeping alternative modes
of transportation safe from vehicles on the road [34]. Today,
Coachella Valley still continues to be one of the fastest
growing places within the United States with The Palm Spring
Desert Resorts still attracting visitors and with the help of
Southern Californias expansive freeway system and its
Palm Springs City Hall’s
Image Source: Santa
Monica Conservancy
PPalm Springs Veterans
Memorial’s Source: City
of Palm Springs
Vanessa Ramirez
Christine Vazquez
Gev Chimayan
Boya Liu
John Cadiz
Image Source: John Earl
J.F.T. O’CONNOR, D. J. (1945, April 25). Arenas v. United States. Legal research tools from Casetext. Retrieved October 7, 2021, from
A peek behind the Palms – Palm Springs history. ResorTime. (2017, October 19). Retrieved October 13, 2021, from Conrad, T. (2019, April 14). ‘tropical products, freedom from frosts’: This railroad helped make valley an international destination. The Desert Sun. Retrieved October 13, 2021, from
A peek behind the Palms – Palm Springs history. ResorTime. (2017, October 19). Retrieved October 13, 2021, from
John McCallum first to bring water to the Palm Springs Desert. Palm Springs Life. (2020, July 16). Retrieved October 13, 2021, from History. (2021, July 18). Retrieved October 13, 2021, from
LoCascio, John Paul. A Different Kind of Eden: Gay Men, Modernism, and the Rebirth of Palm Springs. Thesis / Dissertation ETD, University of Southern California, 2013.
Palm Springs Landmarks History – La Plaza Shopping Area. Palm Springs Life. (2016, April 23). Retrieved October 13, 2021, from Murphy, D. G. and R. (2019, September 19). ‘it was beautiful for the white people:’ 1960s still cast a shadow of distrust over Palm Springs. The Desert Sun. Retrieved October 11, 2021, from
Palm Springs General Plans. General Plan | City of Palm Springs. (n.d.). Retrieved October 7, 2021, from
(SAME AS FOOTNOTE 2) Conrad, T. (2019, April 14). ‘tropical products, freedom from frosts’: This railroad helped make valley an international destination. The Desert Sun. Retrieved October 13, 2021, from History. (2021, July 18). Retrieved October 13, 2021, from
Johnny and Velma Dawson became the desert’s first power couple. Palm Springs Life. (2021, October 1). Retrieved October 13, 2021, from
A peek behind the Palms – Palm Springs history. ResorTime. (2017, October 19). Retrieved October 13, 2021, from
Brown, R. (2017, August 10). Explore Palm Springs: Airport Takes Flight. Palm Springs Life. Retrieved from
Reggev, K. (2020, November 4). Glimpsing the history of Palm Springs. DIRT. Retrieved October 13, 2021, from Conrad, T. (2019, April 14). ‘tropical products, freedom from frosts’: This railroad helped make valley an international destination. The Desert Sun. Retrieved from
(SAME AS FOOTNOTE 9)Murphy, D. G. and R. (2019, September 19). ‘it was beautiful for the white people:’ 1960s still cast a shadow of distrust over Palm Springs. The Desert Sun. Retrieved October 11, 2021,
The Palm Springs Desert Resorts Are Rich With History. Tribune. (2012, May 15). Retrieved October 13, 2021, from Castello Cities Internet Network, Inc. (2020, February 29). Palm Springs Aerial Tram. Retrieved from
(SAME AS FOOTNOTE 19) The Palm Springs Desert Resorts Are Rich With History. Tribune. (2012, May 15). Retrieved October 13, 2021, from Carter, A. (2018, April 20). Sunline Transit Agency celebrates 40 years serving the Coachella Valley & paving the way to advancements in zero emission transit. DCN News. Retrieved from
Reggev, K. (2020, November 4). Glimpsing the history of Palm Springs. DIRT. Retrieved October 13, 2021, from
Pea, X. (2019, September 18). Why all the windmills? Visit Greater Palm Springs. Retrieved October 13, 2021, from
Bohannan, L. (2019, November 2). From the vault: A look back at Palm Springs Pride Parade’s humble beginning. The Desert Sun. Retrieved October 7, 2021, from Greater Palm Springs Pride Parade Grows With City. Palm Springs Life. (2018, October 22). Retrieved October 7, 2021, from
Reggev, K. (2020, November 4). Glimpsing the history of Palm Springs. DIRT. Retrieved October 13, 2021, from
LoCascio, John Paul. A Different Kind of Eden: Gay Men, Modernism, and the Rebirth of Palm Springs. Thesis / Dissertation ETD, University of Southern California, 2013 Goolsby, D. (2014, August 3). Historically, Palm Springs Shuttles never lasted long. The Desert Sun. Retrieved from
Amtrak. (n.d.). Palm Springs, CA (PSN). Great American Stations. Retrieved from Guardian News and Media. (2018, January 1). In gay-friendly Palm Springs, America’s first all-LGBT government is no surprise. The Guardian. Retrieved October 7, 2021, from
Mid-Century Architecture Self-Guided Tour. Visit Palm Springs, 28 Sept. 2021,
EnsembleIQ. (2017, September 2). Palm Springs Gas Station gets historic status. Convenience Store News. Retrieved from https://csnews..
Felci, E. (2020, October 4). Ambitious bike-PED network connects Palm Springs to coachellaErica. California Association of Councils of Governments. Retrieved from City of Palm Springs. (n.d.). Context: Palm springs During World War II (1939 -1945). PalmSpringsCa.Gov. Retrieved October 13, 2021, from Hickman, M. (2019, February 14). How historic preservation saved Palm Springs. Treehugger. Retrieved October 13, 2021, from https://www.treehugger..
Renee Brown Special to The Desert Sun. (2015, October 4). History: Palm springs preserving desert modernism. The Desert Sun. Retrieved October 13, 2021, from

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