The budget to convert the organic waste

A product-service-system proposal for municipalities in developing
countries with tight budget to convert the organic waste in energy to
eliminate dumps
Jairo Pablo Alves de Carvalho a,⇑, Nilcéia Perez Ribeiro b, Caroline da Rocha Franco b, Anderson Catapan b,
Milton Borsato a
a Mechanical Materials Engineering and Manufacturing – Federal Technologic University of Parana – UTFPR, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
b Planning and Public Governance – Federal Technologic University of Parana –UTFPR, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:
Received 4 November 2019
Revised 1 March 2020
Accepted 15 March 2020
Available online 19 March 2020
Organic waste
PSS design
Waste management
Municipalities waste management
a b s t r a c t
In developing countries, organic waste is commonly dumped in untreated landfills. Brazil has around
3,000 landfills distributed in 1,600 cities. The Brazilian government instituted the National Solid Waste
Policy (PNRS), which set the goal of ending the dumping grounds in 2014. However, it was not accomplished.
Municipal governments do not have the resources to fund the existing treatment technologies.
Thus, there is an urgent need to propose low-cost alternatives to solve this problem. This work proposes
a low-cost Product-Service System (PSS) solution that enables the proper treatment of organic waste
using the current municipal budget, based on the renting of household biodigesters. It was outlined from
a model built on various proposals for the PSS design, published between 2011 and 2018. A feasibility
simulation of the proposal conducted for the scenario of the Brazilian city of Porto Amazonas has demonstrated
that, by adopting the proposal, the administration could comply with the PNRS and save part of its
actual budget. It also showed 75% of probability of financial viability for the PSS provider, in a scenario of
reduction of up to 20% in the current municipal costs for organic waste collection and transportation, and
up to 40% off in cooking gas costs for the equipment-hosting households. The proposal is a potential solution
for the Brazilian municipalities with more favorable scenarios to comply with the PNRS, as well as
other countries’ municipalities with budget constraints to eliminate their dumps.
2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
In developing countries, the organic waste is commonly discarded
in dumping grounds (Ramos et al., 2017; Monteiro, 2001).
Therefore, the air and soil contamination and disease proliferation
take place (Oliveira and Oliveira, 2013; Unnikrishnan and Singh,
2010). Brazil has almost 3,000 dumping grounds, distributed in
1,600 cities, which affect the health of 95 million people. (Blast
Elaine, 2018).
The Brazilian government instituted the National Solid Waste
Policy (PNRS), by Law number 12305/2010, and set the goal of ending
the dumping grounds in 2014 (Ferreira, 2018). However, in
2015, 41.3% of waste was improperly discarded in dumps or landfills
(Greice et al., 2017). Then the Federal Senate approved Bill
number 425/2014, extending the deadlines to 2021 (Brasil,
2010). According to Law number 12305/2010, the urban cleaning
service is a responsibility of municipalities. However, 90% of them
have less than 50,000 inhabitants and are unable to generate
resources to afford available technological solutions for waste
treatment and do not have access to financing credit lines in funding
organizations (Abrelpe, 2016; Ferreira, 2018).
A recent study of structured literature review found that the
study of solutions to mitigate the problems related to the disposal
of household waste is a trend (Carvalho et al., 2018). In the same
study, it was also found that, considering waste management as
a business model, the current research addresses the issues related
to the return on investment in commercial waste-to-fuel technologies
or waste characterization to allow better segregation and
reuse of non-combustible parts (Eriksson et al., 2014; Heiskanen
and Jalas, 2000; Jagtap and Rahimifard, 2017; Raabe et al., 2017;
Sahimaa et al., 2015; Shahbazi et al., 2016; van Ewijk and
Stegemann, 2016; Yazan, 2016). However, they did not address
the issue of the potential lack of capacity of municipalities to fund
0956-053X/ 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
⇑ Corresponding author at: Rua Estefano Graboski, 120 – Centro, 83730-000,
Contenda, Paraná, Brazil.
E-mail addresses: [email protected] (J.P.A.d. Carvalho),
catap[email protected] (A. Catapan), [email protected] (M. Borsato).
Waste Management 106 (2020) 99–109
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Waste Management
journal homepage:

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