Cause and Effect Vocabulary
1. Cause of smth smth that makes an happen
e.g. cause of traffic accidents
Establish/investigate/discover the cause of smth
Cause smth for smb. (e.g., cause problems for smb.)
Cause smb. trouble/problems
Be caused by smth (e.g., lung cancer can be caused by smoking)
2. Reason for (doing) smth = why
(e.g., What is your reason for smoking = why do you smoke?)
Reason (that / why) + subject + verb
(e.g., There are several reasons that lead to traffic accidents)
For personal/sentimental/obvious reasons
Reason behind smth.
Reason (that) to form a judgment about a situation
E.g., They reasoned that the competitors will soon copy their idea.
3. Effect of smth
(e.g., Lung cancer is one effect of smoking)
Have an effect on smb/smth
(e.g., Smoking has a on health.)
Affect smth / smb = influence, impact
(e.g., A lack of good nutrition and exercise positively affects health.)
Be affected by smth / smb
(e.g., His health was negatively affected by a lack of good nutrition and
4. Result of smth
(e.g., Lung cancer is a common result of .)
As a result (of smth)
With the result that
Result from smth = be caused by smth
e.g. His difficulty concentrating resulted from lack of sleep.
Result in smth = to cause smth.
E.g. The accident resulted in damage to the car
5. Consequence of smth for smth
(e.g., Lung cancer is a common consequence of long-term smoking.)
With … consequences
As a consequence (of smth)/in consequence of smth.
Take/suffer/face the consequences (of smth)
(e.g., If you text while driving, youll have to face the consequences of
Noun Verb Adjective Adverb
6. Immigrant (from a country) person
Immigration process; concept
Immigrate from one country / to another
7. Employer = person who employs smb.
Employee = person who works for a
Employment / unemployment
Employ smb. as smth.
Be employed as smth. / by smb.
8. Benefit(s) of smth.
Benefit from / by smth.
Beneficial to / for smb. Beneficially
9. Responsibility (for doing smth.)
It is smb.s responsibility to do smth.
Take responsibility for doing smth. To be responsible for (doing smth.) Responsibly
10. Politics (of smth.)
Politician = person
E.g., politics of a country
Be involved in politics Political
E.g., political system / party /
organization / expert
11. Economics (of smth.)
Economist = person
—– Economic = related to economics
E.g., economic system / problem
Economical = using money carefully
12. Society (of smth.) Socialize with smb. = spend time with
other people in a friendly way
Social e.g., social skills / life Socially
13. Physics —– Physical Physically
14. (of smth. /
—– Mental / psychological benefits /
Good / excellent health
Poor / ill health
Improve / damage health
Be in good / excellent / poor health
Be good / bad for your health
Healthy diet / lifestyle / person
Positive / negative health effects
Health risk / hazard
16. Corruption = dishonest, illegal or immoral
behavior esp. of people in power
Corrupt smb. = to encourage smb. to act
in an immoral or dishonest way
Corrupt (e.g., a corrupt politician) —–
17. Harm to smth. / smb. Harm smb. / smth. Be harmful to smb. Harmfully
Do more harm than good
Psychological / emotional / physical harm
Cause harm to smb. / cause smb. harm
Suffer harm = experience harm
18. Abuse of smb. / smth.
E.g., substance abuse, physical abuse
E.g., abuse alcohol or drugs
Abusive = causing abuse
Abused = experiencing abuse
High school / college education
Educate smb. about / in / on smth.
Get / receive an education
Be educated at a place
Educated (e.g., well-educated; college
20. Stability of smth. = being steady and not
Stabilize = become or make smth. steady
21. Feature of smth.
Feature in = show somewhere (e.g., in a
Feature strongly, prominently, etc.
Be featured in smth. —–
22. Advantage of smth.
Disadvantage of / to smth.
Have an advantage
Be at a disadvantage
Take advantage of smb./smth.
To be advantageous to smb./smth.
To be disadvantageous
23. Opportunity to do smth. / for smth.
Ideal / perfect / unique / rare / ample
Take / seize / use an opportunity —– —–
24. Addiction to smth.
Addict = person
Drug / alcohol addict
Drug / alcohol addiction
Be / become addicted to smth. Be addicted to smth. = experiencing
addiction (e.g., addicted to drugs)
Be addictive = cause addiction
e.g., an addictive substance
25. Alcoholic = person
Alcoholism = medical condition
Alcohol = substance in drinks that makes
Be / become an alcoholic
Suffer from alcoholism
alcoholic (e.g., alcoholic drink)
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