Using Twitter in Reclaiming Macro Practice, and Affirming

Using Twitter in Reclaiming Macro Practice, and
Affirming Our Social Work Roots
Sunya Williams Folayan, Laurel Iverson Hitchcock, and Karen Zgoda
Abstract: This article addresses some of the current discourse concerning the divide between
micro and macro practice in social work. Today’s ever-changing socio-political and
environmental landscape requires social workers to look beyond internal divisions and focus on
the central values that drive the profession. With an increasingly diverse population and more
complex problems including globalization, the redistribution of political power, increased
privatization of services, and increased exposure to the influence of social media, social work is
more relevant than ever. We suggest social workers bridge the divide in practice and education
by embracing technology through #MacroSW chats on Twitter and by refraining from thinking
of micro and macro practice as polarized constructs, while remaining true to the profession’s
foundational roots of social justice, knowledge, and ethics.
Keywords: micro practice, macro practice, polarization, social media, technology, collaboration,
Professional Learning Network (PLN)
The field of social work is fluid and dynamic due to its constantly changing environment.
Integrating Macro + Micro social work is more relevant than ever due to the social worker’s
unique skill in helping people and systems navigate an ever-changing socio-political and
environmental landscape. Today, we face issues related to globalization of industry and human
migration; the privatization of services; redistribution of political power and authority to local
governments and the non-profit sector; an overall decline in civic and political participation,
decreased privacy in social life; increased exposure to social media and its impact on the
public’s perception of social and human rights issues; and conflicts inherent in the shifting
demographics and diversity of the nation’s people and cultures (Reich, 2013a).
Micro and Macro Polarization
Social Work incorporates a continuum of interventions focusing on particular systemic units of
analysis. Micro social work focuses on providing increasing degrees of resource identification,
guidance, and support for vulnerable populations at the individual and family level. Mezzo
social work focuses on small groups and systems, and macro social work concentrates on
planned change interventions for large groups including institutions, communities,
neighborhoods, and populations. All three levels naturally overlap and are interrelated. The
polarization between micro and macro perspectives has resulted in loss of focus on the
profession’s common ground—namely what we would describe as social work’s core focus on
the interface between the person and the environment. This loss of focus distracts us from
initiating efforts leading to sustained planned and systemic change. A number of problems can
be articulated that stem from not utilizing an integrated perspective that aligns all areas of social
Using Twitter in Reclaiming Macro Practice, and Affirming Our Social Work Roots
work practice as equally important.
One problem is the disappearance of macro social work. Macro social work has become a
marginalized subfield within the profession, as clinical social work (a subset of micro social
work) is promoted as both more relevant and more accessible (Fischer & Corcicullo, 2011, p.
359). Less than 9% of all MSW students were enrolled in all combined macro practice areas
(Council on Social Work Education, 2012). Less than one in seven social workers identify macro
practice as their practice focus (Whitaker & Arrington, 2008, pp.7-8) meaning schools of social
work are producing a shortage of macro social workers, particularly in high need, low-income
communities with limited access to power (Reisch, 2014).
Another challenge is that macro social work practice is often labeled “Indirect” practice. This is
a misnomer. Macro social work practice integrates all forms of practice and realizes our
profession’s historic and foundational commitment to social justice, human rights and social
change. Macro social work practice asserts that all social work professionals work within
communities and organizations—both formal and informal—and that understanding how social
policy affects one’s work is essential to effective practice (Reisch, 2014).
A third problem is the lack of systemic change skill development and competency. Newly
minted social workers often start with diminished ability and an unwillingness to develop
necessary skills and thought processes to identify and utilize organizational and community
strengths. These skills are needed to empower clients and communities to mobilize for systemic
change (Koerin, Reeves & Rosenblum, 2000; Hymans, 2000).
Finally, there is a disconnect between macro practice curricula, faculty, and students. Many
programs pay scant attention to macro content in field work or classroom curricula. Rothman
(1999) found deans and directors of social work programs devaluing macro content and
resistance among social work faculty in integrating macro practice content and field work into
some BSW and MSW curricula. In addition, there appears to be a general lack of interest in
understanding macro practice among social work students (Reisch, 2014; Kasper & Wiegand,
Personal Experiences with Bridging Micro and Macro Divides
My personal experiences have taught me the necessity of bridging micro and macro social work
practice divides. I, Sunya Folayan, come to macro practice after many years as a clinician,
transitioning into an encore career utilizing technology, prevention and research. I am especially
interested in the mental and financial health care of women, and more specifically, women of
color. I started my multi-faceted social work career more than 40 years ago at the age of 19
when I convinced our local social and rehabilitation services center’s county director to find a
job for me while I obtained my first social work degree. Four weeks later, I had a state car, an
expense account and the title “Social Work Aide.” I traveled all over my home state of Kansas,
traveling on rural highways to supervise home visits. Since our local office was in the state
capital, I frequently delivered official documents to state and local agencies, and I assisted child
protective service workers with getting caught up on paperwork. After graduate school in North
Using Twitter in Reclaiming Macro Practice, and Affirming Our Social Work Roots
Carolina, I started working with the families of alcoholics in an outpatient program. From there I
went to a well-established community family service agency. Once licensed, I began a private
practice that lasted for nearly 25 years. I have enjoyed the flexibility and utility of having a
social work degree, because I have been able to have many career experiences within the
profession. I have been a clinician addressing the needs of families. I conducted groups in an
inpatient psychiatric unit of a hospital, and worked as the facilitator of batterers men’s groups. I
coordinated domestic violence capacity building initiatives for rural agencies serving women in
Alaska, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina. I trained domestic violence advocates
in the Caribbean. I wrote and helped implement curricula to help the United States Marine Corps
address domestic violence and to increase communication between civilian and military police. I
performed employee assistance counseling with clients in television stations, grocery stores, a
hospital, fortune 500 companies, and textile chemical plants. I have been a community organizer
in New York. I have collaborated and advanced learning with social workers in England. I have
coordinated a social work department at a Historically Black College (HBCU) combined with
teaching. During that time, I helped write curricula in preparation for re-accreditation by the
Council on Social Work Education (CSWE). I am the co-founder of a womanist and social
justice-based non-profit organization focusing on intervention and prevention of domestic
violence amongst women and girls of color.
The tradition of self-help and mutual aid societies requires a hands-on-all-roles approach that is
still prevalent in communities today (Betten & Austin, 1990). It is essential that one learn how to
develop innovative programs to solve complex problems at the grassroots level because there is
often limited or no funding for such programs. As a non-profit manager in a grassroots agency, I
had to learn to tap into the cultural history and traditions utilized before the establishment of
settlement houses and charity organizations became known. I also needed to learn budgeting,
business management and a new set of leadership skills. In every career endeavor, navigating
seamlessly between micro-(mezzo)-macro practice modalities has been essential. There is no
separation between micro-macro as I have relied on each element of practice to inform the
Using Twitter to Address the Micro + Macro Divide
Technology will play an increasing role in the growth of our profession and cultural competence
in the future. I believe Twitter will also aid social work practice in mitigating the micro+macro
polarization that caused some of the challenges addressed earlier. One of the most empowering
aspects of transitioning to a new phase of my professional life in social work has been becoming
a partner of the #MacroSW chat team on Twitter ( As a partner of this
online community, I work with a group of social workers, organizations, social work schools,
and educators working to promote macro social work practice. I have grown and stretched as a
social worker through this collaborative because it has shaped my professional learning network
(PLN), which uses one’s resources (typically social media) to communicate with other
professionals, to collect or bookmark information related to their professional interests, and
collaborate with others on projects (Richardson & Manacebelli, 2011). A PLN is nothing new to
the social work profession. We call it life-long or career learning, and prior to the Internet and
social media, social workers wrote letters, made phone calls and met at conferences to network
Using Twitter in Reclaiming Macro Practice, and Affirming Our Social Work Roots
for professional growth. Today, we can use all types of digital tools to connect with others, share
resources and even create meaningful connection around almost any topic.
My PLN has informed my understanding of the micro-macro divide, and it has allowed me
opportunities to work beyond the divide. First, through Twitter, I am able to learn about macro
social work practice at any time in any place. I stay current regarding trends in the social work
profession by reading articles, blog posts and other relevant sources. My online interaction and
my professional relationships with social workers who utilize the highest standards of ethics and
practice push me to stretch myself to higher standards of practice. Because I am online, I am
challenged to move past my comfort zone to learn new technology and take on new tasks, all of
which contribute to my personal and leadership skill development.
Second, I am able to network with practitioners. I interact with social workers across the country
and around the globe on a regular basis in conversations that encourage participation and
networking with other social workers to create common language. The common realization is
that the divide between micro and macro practice keeps us from focusing on the “how to” of
creating planned change initiatives at all levels of social work. I am able to nurture relationships
that contribute to my personal development. My network of international social work colleagues
who wish to engage in online social work discussions and my chat presence have created new
business opportunities for domestic and international travel.
Finally, through Twitter I have found that I can make a meaningful impact on my profession. My
visibility has increased and given me a larger platform to share information about my life at the
intersections of social work practice. I am part of a larger effort to influence CSWE and National
Association of Social Workers (NASW) on the importance of micro+macro integration, and the
rebranding of macro practice. I have increased my social capital, met new allies, and have
confirmed and affirmed my identity as a macro practice social worker, further increasing my
understanding of all interrelatedness of practice areas. I can use social media as a tool to
disseminate knowledge throughout all areas of practice about the social justice issues I am most
passionate about: financial capability; self-care and mental health for women of color; and food
access in marginalized communities.
Advantages of Participating in Twitter Chats
While little research has been done on the ways that Twitter and other forms of social media can
be incorporated into social work practice, we do know that social workers are beginning to use
social media for communication and networking (Goldkind, Wolf & Jones, 2016; Sage & Sage,
2016). Social work educators are beginning to use Twitter to help students connect with
practitioners and mentors outside the classroom (Hitchcock & Young, 2016; Taylor, 2014).
Further, Twitter has the potential to connect social workers across the planet (Hitchcock &
Taylor, 2016; Shelly, 2014). Anecdotally, during my discussions about social media technology
and Twitter with colleagues, we affirm that technology and the #MacroSW chat helps bridge the
gap between micro and macro is several ways. First, it increases the ability to interact with and
engage a vast and diverse population of social work professionals who would not be able to
come together under normal circumstances, allows one to affirm social work identity in a
Using Twitter in Reclaiming Macro Practice, and Affirming Our Social Work Roots
supportive and collaborative manner. For example, our chats bring educators, students,
researchers, grassroots citizens, and policy makers, interdisciplinary colleagues, and social
workers from other countries together to share common concerns about the depth and
complexity of issues facing our local and global communities. Social workers use this as an
opportunity to discuss self-care, provide humor, affirm expertise and accomplishment, and to
relieve stress in healthy ways based on a shared understanding of the nature of our work.
Second, we experience social workers coming together excited to create community and to
discuss problems and solutions to today’s complex and changing issues such as mass
incarceration, income inequality and the needs of transgender children from a community and
policy perspective. For academics, the chats provide a great opportunity for social work students
to engage with practitioners on issues of professional standards of practice. The chats encourage
student participation at a crucial time in their social work education—#MacroSW provides
opportunities for learning about macro social work and the interrelatedness of practice areas
while they are still in the formative stages of their social work development.
#MacroSW Chat topics discussed are timely and diverse and include: Building Micro-Macro
Common Ground: Grand Challenges and Grand Accomplishments of Social Work; Trauma
Informed Care; Technology Standards in Macro Practice; Macro Practice Ethics; Advocacy;
Political Awareness and Advocacy; Developing Effective Agency and University Partnerships;
and more. Chat transcripts and archives are available at
Additional Solutions to Bridge the Micro/Macro Divide
As a social worker who is continually striving for a holistic perspective, I offer the following
practices and solutions to address the problems inherent in the micro/macro divide for the
individual social worker. First, one should embrace macro practice as the integration of all forms
of practice, keeping in mind that macro practice uses collective and collaborative efforts in
program and policy development, and innovative services that enhance the quality of life
(Begun, Berger, Otto-Salaj, & Rose, 2010). For example, the non-profit I co-founded is
concerned about the connections between food insecurity, mental health and poverty. We
observed that as women became more knowledgeable about food production and involved their
friends, families and children in gardening, new community advocates began replicating what
they learned in their neighborhoods. Next, we moved to apply for funding to plant an edible food
forest to provide not only food, but therapeutic activities in cultivation that foster hope and
change. In 2015, we hired farmers and scientists to engage a group of military veteran mothers,
battered women with children—many of whom were living with emotional disorders—along
with neighborhood residents to participate in a series of hands on demonstrations on how to
plant and maintain a sustainable food forest. Next, we advocated for the county food policy
decision-making council to diversify its leadership board to include grassroots women and
women of color. All of these entities have had to work through a variety of social and
personality issues to come together for the ongoing welfare of their projects. For this, we
engaged a local dance company to choreograph a series of “eco movement” workshops to allow
participants to express themselves, articulate conflicts, and work for the common good through
performance. We are now in the process of helping the women we have worked with to train as
Using Twitter in Reclaiming Macro Practice, and Affirming Our Social Work Roots
farmers, so they can eventually purchase small parcels of land for farming and food production.
A final frontier is to help these women to gain access to food distribution networks and to create
businesses of their own in sustainable practices: recycling, hospitality, waste
management—domains which have typically been white and male. We have noted stronger
voices advocating for their needs. We observe more family involvement and less hunger, and
more receptivity to mental health services and greater awareness about the importance of
maintaining holistic health.
Second, macro practice articulates the profession’s ethical commitment to both individual and
social change. Social workers must be mindful of this perspective. This focus can enable social
workers to focus on our common roots and the prevention of societal problems, not merely
developing remedial efforts (Reisch, 2014). As in all levels of practice, our greatest instrument is
the use of self. Awareness of our personal biases, areas of privilege and limitations is as essential
as knowing our strengths. It is equally important that we examine where we are as a profession
and work to eliminate any silos that keep us as a profession isolated, uninformed and ineffective
in being the social change agents we are to be.
Third, we should advocate for 20% macro student participation and identification in all social
work programs accredited by CSWE by 2020. This can be done by supporting CSWE programs
efforts to help students understand how community, organizational, management, and policy
processes are integral to effective practice with every population and problem we engage in
(Reisch, 2014). For example, require budgeting and management courses in all social work
programs so that students learn a broad range of skills, and emphasize the importance of
undergirding the NASW Code of Ethics (2015) foundational values of social justice in every
aspect of student learning and professional practice.
To support CSWE’s implicit curriculum, increase and encourage the development of stronger
university-community partnerships (Begun, et. al, 2010). Another example could include
utilizing social media in the classroom and modeling effective technology skills to students.
Support students in utilizing social media, such as #MacroSW on Twitter, as a tool to advance
the profession in the following: social work identity formation, advocacy, relationship building,
education, diversity and inclusion, and dismantling hegemony.
Fourth, we can eliminate discussions of “indirect” practice, and we can emphasize the common
ground among us that recognize all social workers work within the context of individuals,
communities and organizations, as all are affected by social policies (Pierce, 1989; Netting,
Kettner & McMurty, 1998). Along with this, we need to emphasize the importance of working
collaboratively with people not merely with or within “systems” (Burghart, 2013) and the
importance of common core of values intrinsic to the profession of social work.
Fifth, we can encourage all social workers to assume leadership in macro practice strategies,
thereby promoting and ensuring social work promotes strategies that lead to substantive change
affecting the lives and well-being of our society. (Wenocur & Reisch, 1989; Reisch & Andrews,
2002). Macro practitioners should familiarize themselves with macro competencies for effective
practice, and be intentional about ongoing self-development. As educators, it is our
Using Twitter in Reclaiming Macro Practice, and Affirming Our Social Work Roots
responsibility to introduce macro competence standards to students and to identify and nurture
attributes that lend themselves to macro skill development. (Regehr, Bogo, Donovan, Anstice,
and Lim, 2012).
The Social Work Code of Ethics is comprised of many parts. It is a beautifully written document
of principles, centered in social justice and human rights. While it has been adapted and changed
to meet the needs of today, its unifying essence remains unchanged. There is no micro/macro
divide within it. The most powerful tool we bring to our work is the use of ourselves. If we are
fragmented, disconnected or divided in our thinking, it will manifest in our work. We cannot
afford to talk across the profession at one another, isolate ourselves in silos, or believe we are the
only profession interested in making change. We must use technology in ethical ways that will
advance our work. Working apart from community creates division. If we elevate one part of our
profession and devalue another, we will not be empowered to foster the changes our society
needs at this crucial time. Would we say our hands are more important than our feet? Can a tree
prosper without its roots? We think not, and we urge a recommitment to the holistic embrace of
our professional practice which neither elevates nor devalues its parts, and which always
beckons us back to its’ center.
11/5/15 #MacroSW chat on the Special Commission to Advance Macro Practice in Social Work
20 by 2020. (2015). Retrieved from
Begun, A., Berger, L., Otto-Salaj, L., & Rose, S. (2010). Developing effective social work
university-community research collaborations. Social Work, 55(1), 54-62.
Betten, N. & Austin, M. (1990). The roots of community organizing, 1917-1939. Philadelphia,
PA: Temple University Press.
Burghart, S. (2013). Macro practice in social work for the 21st century (2nd ed.). Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Council on Social Work Education. (2012). 2011 statistics on social work education in the
United States. Alexandria, VA: Author.
Fischer, R., & Corcicullo, D. (2011). Rebuilding community organizing education in social
work. Journal of Community Practice, 19(4), 355-368.
Goldkind, L., Wolf, L., & Jones, J. (2016). Late adapters? How social workers acquire
knowledge and skills about technology tools. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 34(4),
Hitchcock, L., & Taylor, A. (2016, September 24). #SWvirtualpal: Hashtagging for connection.
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Retrieved from
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education. Social Work Education, 35(4), 457-468.
Hymans, D. (2000). Teaching BSW Students community practice using an interdisciplinary
neighborhood needs assessment project. Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work, 5(2), 81-92.
Kasper, B., & Wiegand, C. (1999). An undergraduate macro practice learning guarantee. Journal
of Teaching in Social Work, 18(1-2), 99-112.
Koerin, B., Reeves, J., & Rosenblum, A. (2000). Macro learning opportunities: What is really
happening out there in the field? Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work, 6(1), 9-21.
#MacroSW Chat Archives. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Netting, F., Kettner, P., & McMurty, S. (1998) Social work macro practice. New York, NY:
Prentice Hall.
Pierce, D. (1989). Social work and society: An introduction. New York, NY: Longman.
Reardon, C. (2012). Case and cause in social work education – A balancing act. Social Work
Today, 12(2), 20.
Regehr, C., Bogo, M., Donovan, D., Anstill, S., & Lim, A. (2012). Identifying student
competencies in macro practice: Articulating the practice wisdom of field instructors. Journal of
Social Work Education,48(2), 307-319.
Reisch, M. (2013a). Community practice challenges in the global economy. In M.O. Weil, M.
Reich, & M. Ohmer (Eds.), Handbook of Community Practice (2nd ed.) (pp.47-71) Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Reisch, M. (2016): Why macro practice matters, human service organizations: Management,
leadership & governance. Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership &
Governance, 41(1), 6-9.
Reisch, M. & Andrews, J. (2002). The road not taken: A history of radical social work in the
United States (2nd. ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Brummer-Routledge.
Richardson, W., & Mancabelli, R. (2011). Personal learning networks: Using the power of
connections to transform education. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.
Rothman, J. R. (Ed.) (1999). Reflections on community organization: Enduring theme and
critical issues. Itasca, IL: F.E. Peacock.
Using Twitter in Reclaiming Macro Practice, and Affirming Our Social Work Roots
Sage, M., & Sage, T. (2016). Social media and e-professionalism in child welfare: Policy and
practice. Journal of Public Child Welfare, 10(1), 79-95.
Shelly, P. (2014, May 20). Summary of international social work twitter chat. Retrieved from
Summary of International Social Work Twitter Chat
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learning medium in social work education. In J. L. Westwood (Ed.), Social Media in Social
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About the Authors: Sunya Williams Folayan, MSW, CFSW is an entrepreneur and non-profit
manager in independent creative macro practice ([email protected]). Laurel Iverson
Hitchcock, Ph.D. is Associate Professor, Department of Social Work, University of Alabama at
Birmingham ([email protected]). Karen Zgoda, MSW, LCSW is a Ph.D. student in public policy
at the University of Massachusetts Boston ([email protected]).

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We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
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Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

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Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

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Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

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