World Literature by Professor Howell

Jane Doe

Professor Howell

ENG 230-01: World Literature

November 1, 2020

Annotated Bibliography

Beye, Charles Rowan. “Defining Defending Odysseus.” Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics, vol. 19, no. 3, 2012, pp. 109–130. JSTOR, Accessed 2 Nov. 2020.This publication is based on Richard Brodhead’s view of the scandal of the accusation of student-athletes at Duke University.In March 2006, athletes from the lacrosse team were blamedfor raping an exotic dancer at a party. Brodhead, as the president of Duke University, argues that Odysseus is an example of how the public sees theimpropriety of the student-athletes. He explains that the Odyssey has structured the story so that it pressures the readers to accept Odysseus and be pleased with the success he gets from his miserable and dishonorable life, meaning that members of the teamare role models and are looked up to. Using Patroclus, from the Iliad, as an example of fighting outside of the battlefield when Patroclus killed his cousin, Brodheadwants to prove a point where we all make mistakes that we regret later on because of recklessness and impetuosity. No matter what happens, people will keep looking at their program and judge their interactions with the public. Additionally, he compares the Iliad’s rollercoaster of emotions with the accusation of rape to a woman because their reputation is at risk and will do anything to get it back; an example beingAchilles avenginghis friend’s death. This source will help with the conclusion ofmy research paper as it is useful since the characters from the Iliad and the Odyssey are contrasted with real-life situations that can also be identified with problems occurring in fiction. The information is relevant because it was an authentic problem that the president of Duke University had to face in March 2006.This is a reputable source because it is a scholarly,peer-reviewed articlepublished in JSTOR with strong evidence by retired professor of ancient Greekliterature at Lehman College, Charles Rowan Beye.

Haubold, Johannes. “GREEK EPIC: A NEAR EASTERN GENRE?” Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, no. 48, 2002, pp. 1–19. JSTOR, Accessed 2 Nov. 2020.This article stresses about the creation of a new Homeric question. The Near Eastern genre covers the epics in Greek literature thatnowadays,we use parallels to compare or contrast characters with. Haubold does research discussing well-known Greek and Near Eastern literatures that overlap each other to prove that Homer’s epic poems are continuous sequels of his work, even with a different storylineand characterdevelopment.For example,Haubold argues the similarities, or parallels, between Achilles and Gilgamesh,which includes being semi-divine and refusing to accept death. It is important when someone points out a parallel because it helps us see the resemblance of topics, tones, themes, and even settings between two or more books.For his conclusion, Haubold made his point clear about parallels and how they are key points to understand and compare different cultures as well asGreek traditions with the gods. This source is useful because it will supportthe overlaps between the Iliad and Odyssey throughout my research paper. This publication is reputable becauseHaubold spent many years doingnumerous studies about areas of Greek literature, especially epic, and publishing many other scholarly, peer-reviewedsources that share his viewin relation withthe Near Eastern genre as a professor at Durham University.

Lardinois, A. “Characterization through Gnomai in Homer’s Iliad.” Mnemosyne, vol. 53, no. 6, Dec. 2000, pp. 641-661. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1163/156852500510840.Lardinois explains in his article that in Homer’s The Iliad, uniquecharacters are created,particularly in the way where figures in the epic talk.The author uses the Greek term ‘gnomai’, whichmeans the varied point of views that characters use in the book,so that the readers can have a greater understanding about the description of the individuals and their feelings,personalities, and even their features. For example, he argues about the narrations between The Iliad and The Odyssey and how their points of view affect the way that the story is being told.For instance, Lardinoisstates that in the Iliad, Achilles uses first person singular gnomai that helps the audience identify what Achilles is thinking, or his preoccupation with his influencein the world. This article is relevant to this research paper because it can help in identifying the different characterroles, and epic poetry characteristics, as well as themeanings behind the sentences from each protagonist in the books. This source’s goal is to inform its audience about the wisdom sayings of Achilles, Odysseus, and Nestor.This evidence couldpossibly help my research in knowing the gnomai presented within the characters of the Iliad and the Odyssey, as well as giving structure to my essay, especially in the introduction of the paper. It is also a reputable source as it is a scholarly, peer-reviewed article published in the EBSCOhost platform.

Murgatroyd, Paul. “Homer’s Odyssey as a Graphic Novel.” Ordia Prima, vol. 10, Jan. 2011, pp. 19-41. EBSCOhost, Paul’s article, he physically describes Homer’s The Odyssey’s book by stating that it is intended to impress the public with its glossy front cover, bold lettering, and pictures of Odysseus, meaning that this may help make the story simpler to follow for less proficient readers and have a better picture for each book.Supportively, this also helps readers who are used to being indicted things by the TV as opposed to imagining them for themselves. Murgatroyd states that the Odyssey contains three storylines: Odysseus, Telemachus, and Ithaca.He keeps the flashbacks from some characters, like Nestor, Menelaus, Helen, and Odysseus, to help understand more the plot and background of the story.This evidencecan help my research paper because it justifies one of the epic poetry characteristics,the narrative focused on the exploits of a hero or demigod who represents the cultural values of a race, nation, or religious group. The article proves that the gods keep an eye on human morality and punish the unfair people. Additionally, Odysseus is viewed as a role model to his nation, and his family is also an example of great hospitality.It is a credible and reputable source as it was written by a retired college professor from McMaster University who is an expert in Ancient Greek language and published in EBSCOhost. I could develop epic poetry characteristics by explaining and giving examples of Odysseus’ cultural values along with his exploits as a hero and the performance of other demigods.

Ruijgh, Cornelis J. “The Source and the Structure of Homer’s Epic Poetry.” European Review, vol. 12, no. 4, 2004, pp. 527-542. ProQuest,, doi: publication, which is based on Ruijgh’s article on the source and the structure of Homer’s epic poetry, explains the unity of action and differences between the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ruijgh argues that the Odyssey has an atmosphere that is somewhat different from that of the Iliad, discussing that the main theme of the Iliad is Achilles’ anger, as well as the consequences between the Greeks and the Trojans, while on the other hand, the Odyssey’s theme is Odysseus’journey returning home. This source’s goal is to inform its audience about Homer’s epics and how they are the beginning of written Greek literature. It is useful because it explains the vast settings and the hero’s success that determines the fate of its people or nation.It will also help me identify more of the epic poetry characteristics found in the Iliad and the Odyssey. For example, the extended similes at appropriate spots of the story, and traditional scenes with extended descriptions in which the hero arms himself. In the Iliad, most similes are found in the description of Achilles and the battle scenes, while the Odyssey has less insertions of similes because his journey home is already varied enough with descriptions. This is a reputable source as it was published in the ProQuest platform as a scholarly, peer-reviewed article.

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